Assessment of Ethylene Diurea-Induced Protection in Plants Against Ozone Phytotoxicity

  • Aditya Abha Singh
  • Shalini Singh
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
  • Shashi Bhushan Agrawal
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 233)


Rapid economic growth, industrialization, urbanization, and improper implementation of environmental regulations have contributed to increased tropospheric O3 levels since preindustrial times, and this increase has produced a serious air pollution problem. Apart from being a hazardous air pollutant, O3 has also been recognized as the third major (carbon dioxide and methane) green house gas in terms of additional radiative forcing and climate change (Forster et al. 2007). Because of its oxidative capacity, high O3 levels in the atmosphere are detrimental to living organisms, including plants. Ozone is among the most damaging air pollutants to which plants are exposed, and produces substantive plant biomass and yield (seed weight) reductions (Thompson 1992; Agrawal et al. 2005; Manning 2005; Hassan 2006; Hassan and Tewfik 2006; Singh et al. 2009a, 2014; Wahid 2006 a, b; Sarkar and Agrawal 2010a, b; Tripathi and Agrawal 2013). The economic loss for 23 horticultural and agricultural crops from O3 exposure was estimated to be approximately $6.7 billion for the year 2000 in Europe (Holland et al. 2006). Wang and Mauzerall (2004) anticipated economic losses of upto 9 % for four important cereal crops (viz., wheat, rice, maize and soybean) grown in China, South Korea and Japan. To minimize such crop losses many potential antioxidants (e.g., fungicides, insecticides, growth regulators and plant extracts) have been evaluated. Among these, the systemic antioxidant, ethylene diurea, –N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl) ethyl]-N′ phenylurea (popularly known as EDU) was found to be the most effective.


Stomatal Conductance Foliar Spray Visible Injury Snap Bean Foliar Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Authors are thankful to the Head, Department of Botany for facilities and funding agencies Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), University Grants Commission (UGC), Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF), Government of India for providing the financial help. Authors would also like to thank the researchers who helped us indirectly by providing their significant research work on ozone and EDU.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aditya Abha Singh
    • 1
  • Shalini Singh
    • 1
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
    • 1
  • Shashi Bhushan Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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