Monitoring Business Metaconstraints Based on LTL and LDL for Finite Traces

  • Giuseppe De Giacomo
  • Riccardo De Masellis
  • Marco Grasso
  • Fabrizio Maria Maggi
  • Marco Montali
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8659)


Runtime monitoring is one of the central tasks to provide operational decision support to running business processes, and check on-the-fly whether they comply with constraints and rules. We study runtime monitoring of properties expressed in LTL on finite traces (LTF f ) and its extension LDF f . LDF f is a powerful logic that captures all monadic second order logic on finite traces, which is obtained by combining regular expressions with LTF f , adopting the syntax of propositional dynamic logic (PDL). Interestingly, in spite of its greater expressivity, LDF f has exactly the same computational complexity of LTF f . We show that LDF f is able to capture, in the logic itself, not only the constraints to be monitored, but also the de-facto standard RV-LTL monitors. This makes it possible to declaratively capture monitoring metaconstraints, i.e., constraints about the evolution of other constraints, and check them by relying on usual logical services for temporal logics instead of ad-hoc algorithms. This, in turn, enables to flexibly monitor constraints depending on the monitoring state of other constraints, e.g., “compensation” constraints that are only checked when others are detected to be violated. In addition, we devise a direct translation of LDF f formulas into nondeterministic automata, avoiding to detour to Büchi automata or alternating automata, and we use it to implement a monitoring plug-in for the ProM suite.


Formal methods runtime verification declarative business processes operational decision support process monitoring temporal logics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bagheri Hariri, B., Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Deutsch, A., Montali, M.: Verification of relational data-centric dynamic systems with external services. In: 32nd ACM SIGACT SIGMOD SIGART Symp. on Principles of Database Systems, PODS (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Comparing LTL semantics for runtime verification. Logic and Computation (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chesani, F., Mello, P., Montali, M., Torroni, P.: Verification of choreographies during execution using the reactive event calculus. In: Bruni, R., Wolf, K. (eds.) WS-FM 2008. LNCS, vol. 5387, pp. 55–72. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Giacomo, G., Vardi, M.Y.: Linear temporal logic and linear dynamic logic on finite traces. In: 23rd Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI). AAAI (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Masellis, R., Maggi, F.M., Montali, M.: Monitoring data-aware business constraints with finite state automata. In: Int. Conf. on Software and System Proc. (ICSSP). ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dwyer, M.B., Avrunin, G.S., Corbett, J.C.: Patterns in property specifications for finite-state verification. In: Boehm, B.W., Garlan, D., Kramer, J. (eds.) Proc. of the 1999 International Conf. on Software Engineering (ICSE). ACM Press (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eisner, C., Fisman, D., Havlicek, J., Lustig, Y., McIsaac, A., Van Campenhout, D.: Reasoning with temporal logic on truncated paths. In: Hunt Jr., W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725, pp. 27–39. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fischer, M.J., Ladner, R.E.: Propositional dynamic logic of regular programs. Journal of Computer and System Science (1979)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harel, D., Kozen, D., Tiuryn, J.: Dynamic Logic. MIT Press (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ly, L.T., Maggi, F.M., Montali, M., Rinderle-Ma, S., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: A framework for the systematic comparison and evaluation of compliance monitoring approaches. In: Proc. of the 17th IEEE Int. Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conf. (EDOC). IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maggi, F.M., Montali, M., Westergaard, M., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Monitoring business constraints with linear temporal logic: An approach based on colored automata. In: Rinderle-Ma, S., Toumani, F., Wolf, K. (eds.) BPM 2011. LNCS, vol. 6896, pp. 132–147. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maggi, F.M., Westergaard, M., Montali, M., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Runtime verification of LTL-based declarative process models. In: Khurshid, S., Sen, K. (eds.) RV 2011. LNCS, vol. 7186, pp. 131–146. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Møller, A.: dk.brics.automaton – finite-state automata and regular expressions for Java (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Montali, M.: Specification and Verification of Declarative Open Interaction Models. LNBIP, vol. 56. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Montali, M., Maggi, F.M., Chesani, F., Mello, P., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Monitoring business constraints with the event calculus. ACM TIST (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Montali, M., Pesic, M., van der Aalst, W.M.P., Chesani, F., Mello, P., Storari, S.: Declarative specification and verification of service choreographies. ACM Trans. on the Web (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pesic, M.: Constraint-Based Workflow Management Systems: Shifting Controls to Users. PhD thesis, Beta Research School for Operations Management and Logistics, Eindhoven (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pesic, M., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: A declarative approach for flexible business processes management. In: Eder, J., Dustdar, S. (eds.) BPM 2006 Workshops. LNCS, vol. 4103, pp. 169–180. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pnueli, A.: The temporal logic of programs. In: 18th Ann. Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS). IEEE (1977)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prakken, H., Sergot, M.J.: Contrary-to-duty obligations. Studia Logica (1996)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P.: Process Mining - Discovery, Conformance and Enhancement of Business Processes. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vardi, M.: The rise and fall of linear time logic. In: 2nd Int. Symp. on Games, Automata, Logics and Formal Verification (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Westergaard, M., Maggi, F.M.: Modeling and verification of a protocol for operational support using coloured petri nets. In: Kristensen, L.M., Petrucci, L. (eds.) PETRI NETS 2011. LNCS, vol. 6709, pp. 169–188. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe De Giacomo
    • 1
  • Riccardo De Masellis
    • 1
  • Marco Grasso
    • 1
  • Fabrizio Maria Maggi
    • 2
  • Marco Montali
    • 3
  1. 1.Sapienza Università di RomaRomeItaly
  2. 2.University of TartuTartuEstonia
  3. 3.Free University of Bozen-BolzanoBolzanoItaly

Personalised recommendations