A Note on Pushdown Automata Systems

  • Holger Petersen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8614)


In (Csuhaj-Varjú et. al. 2000) Parallel Communicating Systems of Pushdown Automata (PCPA) were introduced and shown to be able to simulate nondeterministic one-way multi-head pushdown automata in returning mode, even if communication is restricted to be one-way having a single target component. A simulation of such centralized PCPA by one-way multi-head pushdown automata (Balan 2009) turned out to be incomplete (Otto 2012). Subsequently it was shown that centralized returning PCPA are universal even if the number of components is two (Petersen 2013) and thus are separated from one-way multi-head pushdown automata. Another line of research modified the definition of PCPA such that communication is asynchronous (Otto 2013). While the simulation of one-way multi-head pushdown automata is still possible, now a converse construction shows this model in returning mode to be equivalent to the one-way multi-head pushdown automaton in a very precise sense. It was left open, whether non-centralized returning PCPA of degree two are universal. In the first part of the paper we show this to be the case.

Then we turn our attention to Uniform Distributed Pushdown Automata Systems (UDPAS). These systems of automata work in turn on a single tape. We show that UPDAS accepting with empty stack do not form a hierarchy depending on the number of components and that the membership problem is complete in NP, answering two open problems from (Arroyo et. al. 2012).


Input String Membership Problem Input Alphabet Communication Symbol Pushdown Automaton 
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Holger Petersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Reinsburgstr. 75StuttgartGermany

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