GeNeDis 2014 pp 213-220 | Cite as

Nanothermodynamics Mediates Drug Delivery

  • Aikaterina L. Stefi
  • Evangelia Sarantopoulou
  • Zoe Kollia
  • Nikolaos Spyropoulos-Antonakakis
  • Athanasia Bourkoula
  • Panagiota S. Petrou
  • Sotirios Kakabakos
  • Georgios Soras
  • Panagiotis N. Trohopoulos
  • Alexey S. Nizamutdinov
  • Vadim V. Semashko
  • Alkiviadis Constantinos Cefalas
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 822)


The efficiency of penetration of nanodrugs through cell membranes imposes further complexity due to nanothermodynamic and entropic potentials at interfaces. Action of nanodrugs is effective after cell membrane penetration. Contrary to diffusion of water diluted common molecular drugs, nanosize imposes an increasing transport complexity at boundaries and interfaces (e.g., cell membrane). Indeed, tiny dimensional systems brought the concept of “nanothermodynamic potential,” which is proportional to the number of nanoentities in a macroscopic system, from either the presence of surface and edge effects at the boundaries of nanoentities or the restriction of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of molecules within them. The core element of nanothermodynamic theory is based on the assumption that the contribution of a nanosize ensemble to the free energy of a macroscopic system has its origin at the excess interaction energy between the nanostructured entities. As the size of a system is increasing, the contribution of the nanothermodynamic potential to the free energy of the system becomes negligible. Furthermore, concentration gradients at boundaries, morphological distribution of nanoentities, and restriction of the translational motion from trapping sites are the source of strong entropic potentials at the interfaces. It is evident therefore that nanothermodynamic and entropic potentials either prevent or allow enhanced concentration very close to interfaces and thus strongly modulate nanoparticle penetration within the intracellular region. In this work, it is shown that nano-sized polynuclear iron (III)-hydroxide in sucrose nanoparticles have a nonuniform concentration around the cell membrane of macrophages in vivo, compared to uniform concentration at hydrophobic prototype surfaces. The difference is attributed to the presence of entropic and nanothermodynamic potentials at interfaces.


Atomic Force Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy Image Macroscopic System Entropic Potential Vibration Isolation Table 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Partial financial support from the European Union, under the FP7-NMP-2012-LARGE-6 “CosmoPhos-Nano” project (reference number: 310337), and from the Russian Government under the Grand No. 02.A03.21.0002 is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aikaterina L. Stefi
    • 1
  • Evangelia Sarantopoulou
    • 1
  • Zoe Kollia
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Spyropoulos-Antonakakis
    • 1
  • Athanasia Bourkoula
    • 2
  • Panagiota S. Petrou
    • 2
  • Sotirios Kakabakos
    • 2
  • Georgios Soras
    • 3
  • Panagiotis N. Trohopoulos
    • 4
  • Alexey S. Nizamutdinov
    • 5
  • Vadim V. Semashko
    • 5
  • Alkiviadis Constantinos Cefalas
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.National Hellenic Research FoundationTheoretical and Physical Chemistry InstituteAthensGreece
  2. 2.N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”Institute for Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and SafetyAthensGreece
  3. 3.RAFARM S.A.AthensGreece
  4. 4.CosmoPHOS LtdThessalonikiGreece
  5. 5.Kazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia
  6. 6.Visiting Professor, Kazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia

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