The efficiency of penetration of nanodrugs through cell membranes imposes further complexity due to nanothermodynamic and entropic potentials at interfaces. Action of nanodrugs is effective after cell membrane penetration. Contrary to diffusion of water diluted common molecular drugs, nanosize imposes an increasing transport complexity at boundaries and interfaces (e.g., cell membrane). Indeed, tiny dimensional systems brought the concept of “nanothermodynamic potential,” which is proportional to the number of nanoentities in a macroscopic system, from either the presence of surface and edge effects at the boundaries of nanoentities or the restriction of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of molecules within them. The core element of nanothermodynamic theory is based on the assumption that the contribution of a nanosize ensemble to the free energy of a macroscopic system has its origin at the excess interaction energy between the nanostructured entities. As the size of a system is increasing, the contribution of the nanothermodynamic potential to the free energy of the system becomes negligible. Furthermore, concentration gradients at boundaries, morphological distribution of nanoentities, and restriction of the translational motion from trapping sites are the source of strong entropic potentials at the interfaces. It is evident therefore that nanothermodynamic and entropic potentials either prevent or allow enhanced concentration very close to interfaces and thus strongly modulate nanoparticle penetration within the intracellular region. In this work, it is shown that nano-sized polynuclear iron (III)-hydroxide in sucrose nanoparticles have a nonuniform concentration around the cell membrane of macrophages in vivo, compared to uniform concentration at hydrophobic prototype surfaces. The difference is attributed to the presence of entropic and nanothermodynamic potentials at interfaces.
Atomic Force Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy Image Macroscopic System Entropic Potential Vibration Isolation Table
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Partial financial support from the European Union, under the FP7-NMP-2012-LARGE-6 “CosmoPhos-Nano” project (reference number: 310337), and from the Russian Government under the Grand No. 02.A03.21.0002 is gratefully acknowledged.
Tasciotti E, Liu X, Bhavane R et al (2008) Mesoporous silicon particles as a multistage delivery system for imaging and therapeutic applications. Nat Nanotechnol 3:151–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Peer D, Karp JM, Hong S et al (2007) Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. Nat Nanotechnol 2:751–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
LaVan DA, McGuire T, Langer R (2003) Small-scale systems for in vivo drug delivery. Nat Biotechnol 21(10):1184–1191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wu Y, Sefah K, Liu H et al (2010) DNA aptamer–micelle as an efficient detection/delivery vehicle toward cancer cells. P Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dhar S, Gu FX, Langer R et al (2008) Targeted delivery of cisplatin to prostate cancer cells by aptamer functionalized Pt(IV) prodrug-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles. P Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17356–17361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu F, Zhang L, Teply BA et al (2008) Precise engineering of targeted nanoparticles by using self-assembled biointegrated block copolymers. P Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2586–2591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jang WD, Nakagishi Y, Nishiyama N et al (2006) Polyion complex micelles for photodynamic therapy: incorporation of dendritic photosensitizer excitable at long wavelength relevant to improved tissue-penetrating property. J Control Release 113:73–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Jassby D (2011) Impact of the particle aggregation on nanoparticle reactivity, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Dissertation, Duke UniversityGoogle Scholar
Pranami G (2009) Understanding nanoparticle aggregation. Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, Paper 10859Google Scholar
Zhang XF, Xu HJ (1993) Influence of halogenation and aggregation on photosensitizing properties of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPC). J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 89:3347–3351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siddiqui MA, Alhadlaq HA, Ahmad J et al (2013) Copper oxide nanoparticles induced mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells. PloS One 8(8):e69534PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Marrache S, Dhar S (2012) Engineering of blended nanoparticle platform for delivery of mitochondria-acting therapeutics. P Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16288–16293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kažukauskas V, Arlauskas A, Pranaitis M et al (2010) Conductivity, charge carrier mobility and ageing of ZnPc/C60 solar cells. Opt Mater 32(12):1676–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiagarajan G, Greish K, Ghandehari H (2013) Charge affects the oral toxicity of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 84(2):330–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Magalhaes MAO, Glogauer M (2010) Pivotal advance: phospholipids determine net membrane surface charge resulting in differential localization of active Rac1 and Rac2. J Leukoc Biol 87(4):545–555CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Yeung T, Gilbert GE, Shi J et al (2008) Membrane phosphatidylserine regulates surface charge and protein localization. Science 319(5860):210–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Trepagnier EH, Jarzynski C, Ritort F et al (2004) Experimental test of Hatano and Sasa’s nonequilibrium steady-state equality. P Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15038–15041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carberry DM, Reid JC, Wang GM et al (2004) Fluctuations and irreversibility: an experimental demonstration of a second-law-like theorem using a colloidal particle held in an optical trap. Phys Rev Lett 92:140601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Park BJ, Furst EM (2010) Fluid-interface templating of two-dimensional colloidal crystals. Soft Matter 6:485–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarantopoulou E, Kollia Z, Cefalas AC et al (2008) Surface nano/micro functionalization of PMMA thin films by 157 nm irradiation for sensing applications. Appl Surf Sci 254:1710–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cefalas AC, Sarantopoulou E, Kollia Z et al (2012) Entropic nanothermodynamic potential from molecular trapping within photon induced nano-voids in photon processed PDMS layers. Soft Matter 8:5561–5574CrossRefGoogle Scholar