Advertisement

Temporal Mode-Checking for Runtime Monitoring of Privacy Policies

  • Omar Chowdhury
  • Limin Jia
  • Deepak Garg
  • Anupam Datta
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8559)

Abstract

Fragments of first-order temporal logic are useful for representing many practical privacy and security policies. Past work has proposed two strategies for checking event trace (audit log) compliance with policies: online monitoring and offline audit. Although online monitoring is space- and time-efficient, existing techniques insist that satisfying instances of all subformulas of the policy be amenable to caching, which limits expressiveness when some subformulas have infinite support. In contrast, offline audit is brute force and can handle more policies but is not as efficient. This paper proposes a new online monitoring algorithm that caches satisfying instances when it can, and falls back to the brute force search when it cannot. Our key technical insight is a new flow- and time-sensitive static check of variable groundedness, called the temporal mode check, which determines subformulas for which such caching is feasible and those for which it is not and, hence, guides our algorithm. We prove the correctness of our algorithm and evaluate its performance over synthetic traces and realistic policies.

Keywords

Mode checking runtime monitoring metric first-order temporal logic privacy policy 

References

  1. 1.
    Health Resources and Services Administration: Health insurance portability and accountability act, Public Law 104-191 (1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Senate Banking Committee: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, Public Law 106-102 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roberts, P.: HIPAA Bares Its Teeth: $4.3m Fine For Privacy Violation, https://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/hipaa-bares-its-teeth-43m-fine-privacy-violation-022311
  4. 4.
    Garg, D., Jia, L., Datta, A.: Policy auditing over incomplete logs: Theory, implementation and applications. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS 2011, pp. 151–162. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Basin, D., Klaedtke, F., Müller, S.: Monitoring security policies with metric first-order temporal logic. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies, SACMAT 2010, pp. 23–34. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Basin, D., Klaedtke, F., Marinovic, S., Zălinescu, E.: Monitoring compliance policies over incomplete and disagreeing logs. In: Qadeer, S., Tasiran, S. (eds.) RV 2012. LNCS, vol. 7687, pp. 151–167. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Basin, D., Klaedtke, F., Marinovic, S., Zălinescu, E.: Monitoring of temporal first-order properties with aggregations. In: Legay, A., Bensalem, S. (eds.) RV 2013. LNCS, vol. 8174, pp. 40–58. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chomicki, J.: Efficient checking of temporal integrity constraints using bounded history encoding. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 20(2), 149–186 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chomicki, J., Niwiński, D.: On the feasibility of checking temporal integrity constraints. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, PODS 1993, pp. 202–213. ACM, New York (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krukow, K., Nielsen, M., Sassone, V.: A logical framework for history-based access control and reputation systems. J. Comput. Secur. 16(1), 63–101 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bauer, A., Goré, R., Tiu, A.: A first-order policy language for history-based transaction monitoring. In: Leucker, M., Morgan, C. (eds.) ICTAC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5684, pp. 96–111. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    DeYoung, H., Garg, D., Jia, L., Kaynar, D., Datta, A.: Experiences in the logical specification of the hipaa and glba privacy laws. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society, WPES 2010, pp. 73–82. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Apt, K., Marchiori, E.: Reasoning about prolog programs: From modes through types to assertions. Formal Aspects of Computing 6(1), 743–765 (1994)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dembinski, P., Maluszynski, J.: And-parallelism with intelligent backtracking for annotated logic programs. In: Proceedings of the 1985 Symposium on Logic Programming, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, July 15-18, pp. 29–38. IEEE-CS (1985)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mellish, C.S.: The automatic generation of mode declarations for Prolog programs. Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Edinburgh (1981)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koymans, R.: Specifying real-time properties with metric temporal logic. Real-Time Systems 2(4), 255–299 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chowdhury, O., Jia, L., Garg, D., Datta, A.: Temporal mode-checking for runtime monitoring of privacy policies. Technical Report CMU-CyLab-14-005, Cylab, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (May 2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alur, R., Henzinger, T.: Logics and models of real time: A survey. In: de Bakker, J.W., Huizing, C., de Roever, W.-P., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) REX 1991. LNCS, vol. 600, pp. 74–106. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andréka, H., Németi, I., van Benthem, J.: Modal languages and bounded fragments of predicate logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27(3), 217–274 (1998)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bauer, A., Küster, J.-C., Vegliach, G.: From propositional to first-order monitoring. In: Legay, A., Bensalem, S. (eds.) RV 2013. LNCS, vol. 8174, pp. 59–75. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pnueli, A.: The temporal logic of programs. In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, SFCS 1977, pp. 46–57. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (1977)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roşu, G.: On Safety Properties and Their Monitoring. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2007-2850, Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Büchi, J.R.: On a Decision Method in Restricted Second-Order Arithmetic. In: International Congress on Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, pp. 1–11. Stanford University Press (1962)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hussein, S., Meredith, P.O., Roşu, G.: Security-policy monitoring and enforcement with JavaMOP. In: ACM SIGPLAN Seventh Workshop on Programming Languages and Analysis for Security (PLAS 2012), pp. 3:1–3:11 (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Meredith, P., Roşu, G.: Runtime verification with the RV system. In: Barringer, H., et al. (eds.) RV 2010. LNCS, vol. 6418, pp. 136–152. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meredith, P., Roşu, G.: Efficient parametric runtime verification with deterministic string rewriting. In: Proceedings of 28th IEEE/ACM International Conference. Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2013). IEEE/ACM, NA (May 2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pellizzoni, R., Meredith, P., Caccamo, M., Roşu, G.: Hardware runtime monitoring for dependable cots-based real-time embedded systems. In: Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Real-Time System Symposium (RTSS 2008), pp. 481–491 (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Meredith, P., Jin, D., Chen, F., Roşu, G.: Efficient monitoring of parametric context-free patterns. In: Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2008), pp. 148–157. IEEE/ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roşu, G., Havelund, K.: Synthesizing dynamic programming algorithms from linear temporal logic formulae. Technical report, Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (2001)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roşu, G., Havelund, K.: Rewriting-based techniques for runtime verification. Automated Software Engineering 12(2), 151–197 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Havelund, K., Roşu, G.: Efficient monitoring of safety properties. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 6(2), 158–173 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roşu, G., Chen, F., Ball, T.: Synthesizing monitors for safety properties: This time with calls and returns. In: Leucker, M. (ed.) RV 2008. LNCS, vol. 5289, pp. 51–68. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: A brief account of runtime verification. The Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming 78(5), 293–303 (2009); The 1st Workshop on Formal Languages and Analysis of Contract-Oriented Software (FLACOS 2007)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roşu, G., Bensalem, S.: Allen Linear (Interval) Temporal Logic –Translation to LTL and Monitor Synthesis. In: Ball, T., Jones, R.B. (eds.) CAV 2006. LNCS, vol. 4144, pp. 263–277. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D’Amorim, M., Roşu, G.: Efficient monitoring of ω-languages. In: Etessami, K., Rajamani, S.K. (eds.) CAV 2005. LNCS, vol. 3576, pp. 364–378. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Basin, D., Jugé, V., Klaedtke, F., Zălinescu, E.: Enforceable security policies revisited. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 16(1), 3:1–3:26 (2013)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bauer, L., Ligatti, J., Walker, D.: More enforceable security policies. In: Cervesato, I., ed.: Foundations of Computer Security: Proceedings of the FLoC 2002 Workshop on Foundations of Computer Security, Copenhagen, Denmark, DIKU Technical Report, July 25–26, 95–104 (2002)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schneider, F.B.: Enforceable security policies. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 3(1), 30–50 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Giannakopoulou, D., Havelund, K.: Automata-based verification of temporal properties on running programs. In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, ASE 2001, pp. 412–416 (November 2001)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Martinell, F., Matteucci, I.: Through modeling to synthesis of security automata. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 179, 31–46 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huisman, M., Tamalet, A.: A formal connection between security automata and jml annotations. In: Chechik, M., Wirsing, M. (eds.) FASE 2009. LNCS, vol. 5503, pp. 340–354. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ligatti, J., Bauer, L., Walker, D.: Run-time enforcement of nonsafety policies. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 12(3), 19:1–19:41 (2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ligatti, J., Bauer, L., Walker, D.: Edit automata: Enforcement mechanisms for run-time security policies. Int. J. Inf. Sec. (2005)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Monitoring of real-time properties. In: Arun-Kumar, S., Garg, N. (eds.) FSTTCS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4337, pp. 260–272. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: The good, the bad, and the ugly, but how ugly is ugly? In: Sokolsky, O., Taşıran, S. (eds.) RV 2007. LNCS, vol. 4839, pp. 126–138. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Comparing LTL semantics for runtime verification. Logic and Computation 20(3), 651–674 (2010)CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Runtime verification for LTL and TLTL. ACM Trans. Softw. 20(4), 14:1–14:64 (2011)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bauer, A., Falcone, Y.: Decentralised LTL monitoring. In: Giannakopoulou, D., Méry, D. (eds.) FM 2012. LNCS, vol. 7436, pp. 85–100. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cranor, L., Langheinrich, M., Marchiori, M., Presler-Marshall, M., Reagle, J.M.: The platform for privacy preferences 1.0 (p3p1.0) specification. World Wide Web Consortium, Recommendation REC-P3P-20020416 (April 2002)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reagle, J., Cranor, L.F.: The platform for privacy preferences. Commun. ACM 42(2), 48–55 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ashley, P., Hada, S., Karjoth, G., Powers, C., Schunter, M.: Enterprise Privacy Authorization Language (EPAL). Technical report, IBM Research, Rüschlikon (2003)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Karjoth, G., Schunter, M.: A privacy policy model for enterprises. In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Computer Security Foundations, CSFW 2002, pp. 271–281. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2002)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    May, M.J., Gunter, C.A., Lee, I.: Privacy apis: Access control techniques to analyze and verify legal privacy policies. In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE Workshop on Computer Security Foundations, CSFW 2006, pp. 85–97. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2006)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Barth, A., Datta, A., Mitchell, J.C., Nissenbaum, H.: Privacy and contextual integrity: Framework and applications. In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, SP 2006, pp. 184–198. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2006)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Barth, A., Mitchell, J., Datta, A., Sundaram, S.: Privacy and utility in business processes. In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium, CSF 2007, pp. 279–294. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2007)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dinesh, N., Joshi, A., Lee, I., Sokolsky, O.: Checking traces for regulatory conformance. In: Leucker, M. (ed.) RV 2008. LNCS, vol. 5289, pp. 86–103. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lam, P.E., Mitchell, J.C., Sundaram, S.: A formalization of hipaa for a medical messaging system. In: Fischer-Hübner, S., Lambrinoudakis, C., Pernul, G. (eds.) TrustBus 2009. LNCS, vol. 5695, pp. 73–85. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ni, Q., Bertino, E., Lobo, J., Brodie, C., Karat, C.M., Karat, J., Trombeta, A.: Privacy-aware role-based access control. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 13(3), 24:1–24:31 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar Chowdhury
    • 1
  • Limin Jia
    • 1
  • Deepak Garg
    • 2
  • Anupam Datta
    • 1
  1. 1.Carnegie Mellon UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for Software SystemsUSA

Personalised recommendations