Efficient and First-Order DPA Resistant Implementations of Keccak
In October 2012 NIST announced that the SHA-3 hash standard will be based on Keccak. Besides hashing, Keccak can be used in many other modes, including ones operating on a secret value. Many applications of such modes require protection against side-channel attacks, preferably at low cost. In this paper, we present threshold implementations (TI) of Keccak with three and four shares that build further on unprotected parallel and serial architectures. We improve upon earlier TI implementations of Keccak in the sense that the latter did not achieve uniformity of shares. In our proposals we do achieve uniformity at the cost of an extra share in a four-share version or at the cost of injecting a small number of fresh random bits for each computed round. The proposed implementations are efficient and provably secure against first-order side-channel attacks.
KeywordsKeccak Side-channel attacks Threshold implementation
We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. In addition, this work has been supported in part by the Research Council of KU Leuven (OT/13/071), B. Bilgin was partially supported by the Flemish Government by the project G.0B421.13N., and V. Nikov was supported by the European Commission (FP7) within the Tamper Resistant Sensor Node (TAMPRES) project with the contract number 258754.
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