Moral Ecology Approaches to Machine Ethics

Chapter

Abstract

Wallach and Allen’s seminal book, Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong, categorized theories of machine ethics by the types of algorithms each employs (e.g., top-down vs. bottom-up), ultimately concluding that a hybrid approach would be necessary. Humans are hybrids individually: our brains are wired to adapt our evaluative approach to our circumstances. For example, stressors can inhibit the action of oxytocin in the brain, thus forcing a nurse who usually acts from subjective empathy to defer to objective rules instead. In contrast, ecosystem approaches to ethics promote hybridization across, rather than within, individuals; the nurse being empowered to specialize in personalized care because other workers specialize in standardization, and profitability. Various philosophers have argued, or laid the framework to argue, that such specialization can be advantageous to teams and societies. Rather than mass-produce identical machines to emulate the best individual human, perhaps we should build diverse teams of machines to emulate the best human teams.

References

  1. 1.
    Alford JR, Funk CL, Hibbing JR (2005) Are political orientations genetically transmitted? Am Polit Sci Rev 99:153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arias-Carrión Ó, Pöppel E (2007) Dopamine, learning and reward–seeking behavior. Acta Neurobioligiae Experimentalis 67:481–488Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barreto M, Ellmers N (2002) The impact of anonymity and group identification on pro–group behavior in computer–mediated groups. Small Group Res 33:590–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berea A, Twardy C (2013) Automated trading in prediction markets. In: Kennedy WG, Agarwal N, Yang SJ (eds) Social computing, behavioral–cultural modeling and prediction. Springer, Berlin, pp 111–122Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Caruana R, Niculescu–Mizil A (2006) An empirical comparison of supervised learning algorithms. In: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on machine learning. The Association for Computing Machinery, New York, pp 161–168Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Charlesworth A (1980) A proof of Gödel’s Theorem in terms of computer programs. Math Mag 54:109–121CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Creative Commons (2007) Attribution–ShareAlike 3.0 unported (CC BY–SA 3.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by–sa/3.0/ Accessed 8 Oct 2012
  8. 8.
    Cushman F, Young L, Hauser M (2006) The role of conscious reasoning and intuition in moral judgment: testing three principles of harm. Psychol Sci 17:1082–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Jong KA (2006) Evolutionary computation: a unified approach. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dean T (2012) Evolution and moral diversity. Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 7 (1): 1-16Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Denison, DR (1990) Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diener E, Fujita F (2005) Life satisfaction set point: stability and change. J Pers Soc Psychol 88:158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dunbar K, Fugelsang J (2005) Causal thinking in science: how scientists and students interpret the unexpected. Sci Technol Think 57–79Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eddy DM, Adler J, Patterson B, Lucas D, Smith KA, Morris M (2011) Individualized guidelines: the potential for increasing quality and reducing costs. Ann Intern Med 154:627–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fan P (2011) Innovation capacity and economic development: China and India. Econ Change Restructuring 44:49–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fehr E, Gachter S (2002) Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415:137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Free Software Foundation, Inc (2008) GNU free documentation license. http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html Accessed 8 Oct 2012
  18. 18.
    Giarratano JC, Riley GD (2005) Expert systems, principles and programming. Thomson Course Technology, BostonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Graham J, Haidt J, Nosek BA (2009) Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. J Pers Soc Psychol 96:1029–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Greene JD (2009) The cognitive neuroscience of moral judgment. In: Gazzaniga MS (ed) The cognitive neurosciences IV. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hanson R (2007) Logarithmic market scoring rules for modular combinatorial information aggregation. J Prediction Markets 1:3–15Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Heisenberg W (1927) Über den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik. Zeitschrift für Physik 43:172–198CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hofstede, GH (2001) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Isen AM, Levin PF (1972) Effect of feeling good on helping: cookies and kindness. J Pers Soc Psychol 21:384–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kanai R, Feilden T, Firth C, Rees G (2011) Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Curr Biol 21:677–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kitcher P (1990) The division of cognitive labor. J Philos 87:5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kohlberg L (1981) The philosophy of moral development. Harper & Row, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kram ML, Kramer GL, Ronan PJ, Steciuk M, Petty F (2002) Dopamine receptors and learned helplessness in the rat: an autoradiographic study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 26:639–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kulkarni D, Simon HA (1988) The processes of scientific discovery: the strategy of experimentation. Cogn Sci 12:139–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lewontin RC (1970) The units of selection. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 1:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lind G (1978) Wie misst man moralisches Urteil? Probleme und alternative Möglichkeiten der Messung eines komplexen Konstrukts. In: Portele G (ed) Sozialisation Und Moral. Beltz, Weinheim, pp 171–201Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lorenz EN (1963) Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J Atmos Sci 20:130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lykken D, Tellegen A (1996) Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychol Sci 7:186–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maynard Smith J (1982) Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Milgram S (1963) Behavioral study of obedience. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 67:371–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Newton I (1676) personal letter. In: Turnbull HW (ed) The correspondence of Isaac Newton, vol 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 416Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Norman WT (1963) Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 66:574–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    O’Reilly CA, Chatman J, Caldwell DF (1991) People and organizational culture: a profile comparison approach to assessing person–organization fit. Acad Manag J 34:487–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Page SE (2011) Diversity and complexity. Princeton University Press, PrincetonMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pascal B, Havet E (1852) Pensées. Dezobry et E. MagdeleineGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pinker S (2011) The better angels of our nature: why violence has declined. Viking Adult, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pizarro DA, Laney C, Morris EK, Loftus EF (2006) Ripple effects in memory: judgments of moral blame can distort memory for events. Mem Cogn 34:550–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Polgreen PM, Nelson FD, Neumann GR, Weinstein RA (2007) Use of prediction markets to forecast infectious disease activity. Clin Infect Dis 44:272–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Quere CL, Harrison SP, Colin Prentice I, Buitenhuis ET, Aumont O, Bopp L, Claustre H (2005) Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models. Glob Change Biol 11:2016–2040Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Raymond E (2000) The cathedral and the bazaar. http://www.catb.org/esr/writings/homesteading/cathedral–bazaar/ Accessed 8 Oct 2012
  46. 46.
    Rest J (1979) Development in judging moral issues. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Santos-Lang CC (2002). Ethics for artificial intelligences. Presented at the 2002 Wisconsin State-wide technology symposium. http://santoslang.wordpress.com/article/ethics-for-artificial-intelligences-3iue30fi4gfq9-1/ Accessed July 2011
  48. 48.
    Sauper C (2008) Automated creation of Wikipedia articles. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schiff JL (2011) Cellular automata: a discrete view of the world. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Servan-Schreiber E, Wolfers J, Pennock DM, Galebach B (2004) Prediction markets: does money matter? Electron Markets 14:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Slovic P (2007) If I look at the mass I will never act: Psychic numbing and genocide. Judgment Decis Making 2:79–95Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sober E, Wilson DS (1998) Unto others: the evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sober E, Wilson S (2000) Summary of: unto others: the evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior. J Conscious Stud 7:185–206Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sosis R, Ruffle BJ (2003). Religious ritual and cooperation: testing for a relationship on Israeli religious and secular kibuttzun. Curr Anthropol 44:713–722Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Steare R (2006) Ethicability. Roger Steare Consulting, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Steil B, Victor DG, Nelson RR (2002) Technological Innovation and Economic Performance. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stephens SL, Martin RE, Clinton NE (2007) Prehistoric fire area and emissions from California’s forests, woodlands, shrublands, and grasslands. For Ecol Manage 251:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stephens SL, Ruth LW (2005) Federal forest-fire policy in the United States. Ecol Appl 15:532–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Taleb NN (2010) The black swan: the impact of the highly improbable. Random House Digital. Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Thompson A (1996) Silicon evolution. In: Proceedings of the first annual conference on genetic programming. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 444–452Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Turiel E (1983) The development of social knowledge: morality and convention. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Versel N (2013) NCQA tests new healthcare quality measure. Information Week. April 12Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Walker LJ, Frimer JA, Dunlop WL (2010) Varieties of moral personality: beyond the banality of heroism. J Pers 78:907–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wallach W, Allen C, Smit I (2008) Machine morality: bottom–up and top-down approaches for modeling human moral faculties. AI Soc 22:565–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wallach W, Allen C (2008) Moral machines: teaching robots right from wrong. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wilde D (2011) Personalities into teams. Eng Manage Rev IEEE 39:20–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wilson DS, Wilson EO (2008) Evolution “for the good of the group”. Am Sci 96:380–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wilson DS, Near D, Miller R (1996) Machiavellianism: a synthesis of the evolutionary and psychological literatures. Psychol Bull 119:285–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wittgenstein L (1958) Philosophical investigations. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wolfers J , Zitzewitz E (2004) Prediction markets. No. w10504. National Bureau of Economic ResearchGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yamagishi T (2003) Cross–societal experimentation on trust: a comparison of the United States and Japan. In: Ostrom E, Walker J (eds) Trust and reciprocity: interdisciplinary lessons from experimental evidence. Russel Sage Foundation, New York, pp 352–370Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yang X-S (2009) Firefly algorithms for multimodal optimization. In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on stochastic algorithms: foundations and applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 169–178Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zak P (2011) The physiology of moral sentiments. J Econ Behav Organ 77:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BellevilleUS

Personalised recommendations