Classic Nintendo Games Are (Computationally) Hard

  • Greg Aloupis
  • Erik D. Demaine
  • Alan Guo
  • Giovanni Viglietta
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8496)


We prove NP-hardness results for five of Nintendo’s largest video game franchises: Mario, Donkey Kong, Legend of Zelda, Metroid, and Pokémon. Our results apply to generalized versions of Super Mario Bros. 1, 3, Lost Levels, and Super Mario World; Donkey Kong Country 1–3; all Legend of Zelda games; all Metroid games; and all Pokémon role-playing games. In addition, we prove PSPACE-completeness of the Donkey Kong Country games and several Legend of Zelda games.


Screen Size Pressure Plate Start Location Game Element Generalize Super 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Greg Aloupis
    • 1
  • Erik D. Demaine
    • 2
  • Alan Guo
    • 2
  • Giovanni Viglietta
    • 3
  1. 1.Département d’InformatiqueUniversité Libre de BruxellesBelgium
  2. 2.MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of OttawaCanada

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