On the Elasticity of Social Compute Units

  • Mirela Riveni
  • Hong-Linh Truong
  • Schahram Dustdar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8484)


Advances in human computation bring the feasibility of utilizing human capabilities as services. On the other hand, we have witnessed emerging collective adaptive systems which are formed from heterogeneous types of compute units to solve complex problems. The recently introduced Social Compute Units (SCUs) present one type of these systems, which have human-based services as their core fundamental compute units. While, there is related work on forming SCUs and optimizing their performance with adaptation techniques, most of it is focused on static structures of SCUs. To provide better runtime performance and flexibility management for SCUs, we present an elasticity model for SCUs and mechanisms for their elastic management which allow for certain fluctuations in size, structure, performance and quality. We model states of elastic SCUs, present APIs for managing SCUs as well as metrics for controlling their elasticity with which it is possible to tailor their performance parameters at runtime within the customer-set constraints. We illustrate our contribution with an example algorithm.


Social Compute Units Elasticity Adaptation Collective Adaptive Systems 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anagnostopoulos, A., Becchetti, L., Castillo, C., Gionis, A., Leonardi, S.: Power in unity: forming teams in large-scale community systems. In: CIKM, pp. 599–608 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anagnostopoulos, A., Becchetti, L., Castillo, C., Gionis, A., Leonardi, S.: Online team formation in social networks. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2012, pp. 839–848. ACM, New York (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernstein, M.S., Brandt, J., Miller, R.C., Karger, D.R.: Crowds in two seconds: enabling realtime crowd-powered interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 2011, pp. 33–42. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernstein, M.S., Karger, D.R., Miller, R.C., Brandt, J.: Analytic methods for optimizing realtime crowdsourcing. CoRR abs/1204.2995 (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dorn, C., Dustdar, S.: Composing near-optimal expert teams: A trade-off between skills and connectivity. In: Meersman, R., Dillon, T.S., Herrero, P. (eds.) OTM 2010. LNCS, vol. 6426, pp. 472–489. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dustdar, S., Bhattacharya, K.: The social compute unit. IEEE Internet Computing 15, 64–69 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dustdar, S., Guo, Y., Satzger, B., Truong, H.L.: Principles of elastic processes. IEEE Internet Computing 15(5), 66–71 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dustdar, S., Truong, H.L.: Virtualizing software and humans for elastic processes in multiple clouds- a service management perspective. IJNGC 3(2) (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hexmoor, H., Chandran, R.: Delegations and Trust. International Journal of Computational Intelligence, Theory and Practice 3(2), 95–108 (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kaganer, E., Carmel, E., Hirschheim, R., Olsen, T.: Managing the human cloud. MITSloan Management Review 54(2), 23–32 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kapuruge, M., Han, J., Colman, A., Kumara, I.: ROAD4SaaS: Scalable business service-based saaS applications. In: Salinesi, C., Norrie, M.C., Pastor, Ó. (eds.) CAiSE 2013. LNCS, vol. 7908, pp. 338–352. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kasunic, M.: A Data Specification for Software Project Performance Measures: Results of a Collaboration on Performance Measurement. Technical report. Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lappas, T., Liu, K., Terzi, E.: Finding a team of experts in social networks. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2009, pp. 467–476. ACM, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lopez, M., Vukovic, M., Laredo, J.: Peoplecloud service for enterprise crowdsourcing. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, pp. 538–545 (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Minder, P., Bernstein, A.: Crowdlang: programming human computation systems. Technical report (JAN (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Psaier, H., Juszczyk, L., Skopik, F., Schall, D., Dustdar, S.: Runtime behavior monitoring and self-adaptation in service-oriented systems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Fourth IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems, SASO 2010, pp. 164–173. IEEEComputerSociety, Washington, DC (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Quinn, A.J., Bederson, B.B.: A taxonomy of distributed human computationGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sagar, A.B.: Modeling collaborative task execution in social networks. In: Potdar, V., Mukhopadhyay, D. (eds.) CUBE, pp. 664–669. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sengupta, B., Jain, A., Bhattacharya, K., Truong, H.-L., Dustdar, S.: Who do you call? Problem resolution through social compute units. In: Liu, C., Ludwig, H., Toumani, F., Yu, Q. (eds.) Service Oriented Computing. LNCS, vol. 7636, pp. 48–62. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    SmartSociety: Hybrid and diversity-aware collective adaptive systems: When people meet machines to build a smarter society, FP7 FET,EU Funded Project (accessed: December 20, 2013)
  21. 21.
    Truong, H.-L., Dustdar, S., Bhattacharya, K.: Programming hybrid services in the cloud. In: Liu, C., Ludwig, H., Toumani, F., Yu, Q. (eds.) Service Oriented Computing. LNCS, vol. 7636, pp. 96–110. Springer, Heidelberg (2012), CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang, X., Kunjithapatham, A., Jeong, S., Gibbs, S.: Towards an elastic application model for augmenting the computing capabilities of mobile devices with cloud computing. Mob. Netw. Appl. 16(3), 270–284 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirela Riveni
    • 1
  • Hong-Linh Truong
    • 1
  • Schahram Dustdar
    • 1
  1. 1.Distributed Systems GroupVienna University of TechnologyAustria

Personalised recommendations