Steps towards Enhancing the User Experience in Accessing Digital Libraries

  • Carlo Meghini
  • Valentina Bartalesi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8522)

Abstract

The advent of the Web has driven cultural institutions to publish digital representations of their assets online. The main problem of the cultural Web sites, and of their back-end Digital Libraries (DLs), is the limitation of the informative services offered to the user. DLs offer simple search functionalities which return a list of the information objects contained in the DL. No semantic relation among the returned objects is usually reported which can help the user in obtaining a more complete knowledge on the subject of the research. The introduction of the Semantic Web, and in particular of the Linked Data, has the potential of improving the search functionalities of DLs. Many cultural institutions have represented their metadata into formal descriptions encoded by means of formal languages such as RDF and OWL. Our study aims at exploiting the representations of the semantics of the objects contained in the new generation DLs in the in order to introduce a new search functionality. As output of a query, the new search functionality does not return just a list of objects but it presents a narrative, based on the objects of the library that are relevant to the query and on a set of semantic relations that connect these objects into something meaningful to the user. The paper presents the first theoretical achievements on a model for representing narratives.

Keywords

Narratology Digital Libraries Narrative Storytelling Semantic Networks Ontologies 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen, J.F.: Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. Communications of the ACM 26(11), 832–843 (1983)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aristotele: Poetica. Laterza (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bal, M.: Narratology: Introduction to the theory of narrative. University of Toronto Press (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., Lassila, O., et al.: The semantic web. Scientific American 284(5), 28–37 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bringsjord, S., Ferrucci, D.: Artificial intelligence and literary creativity: Inside the mind of brutus, a storytelling machine. Psychology Press (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cavazza, M., Pizzi, D.: Narratology for interactive storytelling: A critical introduction. In: Göbel, S., Malkewitz, R., Iurgel, I. (eds.) TIDSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4326, pp. 72–83. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chatman, S.: Characters and narrators: Filter, center, slant, and interest-focus. Poetics Today 7(2), 189–204 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chatman, S.B.: Story and discourse: Narrative structure in fiction and film. Cornell University Press (1980)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crawford, C.: Chris Crawford on interactive storytelling. New Riders (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Doerr, M., Gradmann, S., Hennicke, S., Isaac, A., Meghini, C., van de Sompel, H.: The europeana data model (edm). In: World Library and Information Congress: 76th IFLA General Conference and Assembly, pp. 10–15 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doerr, M., Ore, C.E., Stead, S.: The cidoc conceptual reference model: a new standard for knowledge sharing. In: Tutorials, Posters, Panels and Industrial Contributions at the 26th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, vol. 83, pp. 51–56. Australian Computer Society, Inc. (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elson, D.K., Dames, N., McKeown, K.R.: Extracting social networks from literary fiction. In: Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 138–147. Association for Computational Linguistics (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Genette, G.E., Lewin, J.E.: Narrative discourse: An essay in method. Cornell University Press (1983)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gervás, P., Díaz-Agudo, B., Peinado, F., Hervás, R.: Story plot generation based on cbr. Knowledge-Based Systems 18(4), 235–242 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Greimas, A.J., McDowell, D., Velie, A.R.: Structural semantics: An attempt at a method. University of Nebraska Press Lincoln (1983)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harrell Jr., D.A.: Theory and technology for computational narrative: An approach to generative and interactive narrative with bases in algebraic semiotics and cognitive linguistics. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, San Diego (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herman, D.: Narratology as a cognitive science. Image and Narrative 1, 1 (2000)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lagoze, C., Hunter, J.: The abc ontology and model. Journal of Digital Information 2(2) (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lakoff, G.: Structural complexity in fairy tales. School of Social Sciences. University of California, Irvine (1972)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lang, R.R.: A formal model for simple narratives (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lang, R.: A declarative model for simple narratives. In: Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence, pp. 134–141 (1999)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lebowitz, M.: Story-telling as planning and learning. Poetics 14(6), 483–502 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levi-Strauss, C.: Structural analysis in linguistics and in anthropology. In: Semiotics-An Introductory Anthology, pp. 110–128 (1963)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu, H., Singh, P.: Makebelieve: Using commonsense knowledge to generate stories. In: AAAI/IAAI, pp. 957–958 (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mandler, J.M., Johnson, N.S.: Remembrance of things parsed: Story structure and recall. Cognitive Psychology 9(1), 111–151 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mani, I.: Computational modeling of narrative. Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies 5(3), 1–142 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Meehan, J.R.: Tale-spin, an interactive program that writes stories. In: IJCAI, pp. 91–98 (1977)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Meghini, C., Spyratos, N., Sugibuchi, T., Yang, J.: A model for digital libraries and its translation to rdf. Journal on Data Semantics, 1–33 (2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Meister, J.C.: Computing action: a narratological approach, vol. 2. Walter de Gruyter (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meister, J.C.: Narratology, synthesis. American Museum of Natural History (2012), http://ncep.amnh.org
  31. 31.
    Moreau, L., Clifford, B., Freire, J., Futrelle, J., Gil, Y., Groth, P., Kwasnikowska, N., Miles, S., Missier, P., Myers, J., et al.: The open provenance model core specification (v1. 1). Future Generation Computer Systems 27(6), 743–756 (2011)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pemberton, L.: A modular approach to story generation. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 217–224. Association for Computational Linguistics (1989)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    PÉrez, R.P.Ý., Sharples, M.: Mexica: A computer model of a cognitive account of creative writing. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 13(2), 119–139 (2001)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Propp, V.: Morphology of the Folktale, vol. 9. University of Texas Press (1973)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raimond, Y., Abdallah, S.: The event ontology. Tech. rep., Technical report (2007), http://motools.sourceforge.net/event
  36. 36.
    Riedl, M.O., Young, R.M.: Narrative planning: balancing plot and character. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 39(1), 217–268 (2010)MATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robert, M.: Story. substance, structure, style, and the principles of screenwriting (1997)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rumelhart, D.E.: Notes on a schema for stories (1975)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Salway, A., Herman, D.: Digitized corpora as theory-building resource: New methods for narrative inquiry. New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P (2011)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Scherp, A., Franz, T., Saathoff, C., Staab, S.: F–a model of events based on the foundational ontology dolce+ dns ultralight. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Knowledge Capture, pp. 137–144. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shaw, R., Troncy, R., Hardman, L.: Lode: Linking open descriptions of events. In: Gómez-Pérez, A., Yu, Y., Ding, Y. (eds.) ASWC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5926, pp. 153–167. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shklovsky, V.: Art as technique. Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essays 3 (1965)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Singh, P., et al.: The public acquisition of commonsense knowledge. In: Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium: Acquiring (and Using) Linguistic (and World) Knowledge for Information Access (2002)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stein, N.L., Glenn, C.G.: An analysis of story comprehension in elementary school children: A test of a schema (1975)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thorndyke, P.W.: Cognitive structures in comprehension and memory of narrative discourse. Cognitive Psychology 9(1), 77–110 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Todorov, T.: Grammaire du décaméron. Mouton The Hague (1969)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Turner, S.R.: The creative process: A computer model of storytelling and creativity. Psychology Press (1994)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Van Dijk, T.A., et al.: Recalling and summarizing complex discourse. In: Text Processing, pp. 49–93 (1979)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Meghini
    • 1
  • Valentina Bartalesi
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione “Alessandro Faedo”– CNRPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations