Validity of Driving Simulator for Agent-Human Interaction

  • Yutao Ba
  • Wei Zhang
  • Gavriel Salvendy
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 434)


Drivers of intelligent agent in the virtual environment offer researchers a great opportunity to study interaction between drivers in the safe, controlled, replicable and low-cost simulator environment. However, the validation for the effectiveness of agent drivers upon human drivers is required. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of agent-human interaction in a simulator, compared with human-human interaction on real roads. 20 male participants were recruited to watch eight scenarios concerning interactive driving behaviors and signal usage, which were presented in the forms of both realistic films with human drivers and virtual graphic scenes with agent drivers. Participants’ attitude, emotions and visual attention were recorded. The relative validity was established for all measurements. This result suggested that medium fidelity simulator with agent drivers could provide the effective values to evaluate the human-human interaction mirrored these values obtained on real road.


validity intelligent agent driving simulator vehicle signals 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ba, Y., Zhang, W.: An empirical approach for driver-driver interaction study: Attributes, influence factors and framework. Advances in Usability Evaluation, 404 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ba, Y., Zhang, W., Yang, Y., Salvendy, G.: Interpersonal signal processing during interactive driving scenarios. Working paper (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blaauw, G.J.: Driving experience and task demands in simulator and instrumented car: A validation study. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 24(4), 473–486 (1982)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonabeau, E.: Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(3), 7280–7287 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doniec, A., Mandiau, R., Piechowiak, S., Espié, S.: A behavioral multi-agent model for road traffic simulation. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 21(8), 1443–1454 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ehlert, P.A., Rothkrantz, L.J.: Microscopic traffic simulation with reactive driving agents. In: Proceedings of the Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp. 860–865. IEEE (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hudlicka, E.: To feel or not to feel: The role of affect in human–computer interaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59(1), 1–32 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, Y., Mehler, B., Reimer, B., Lammers, V., D’Ambrosio, L.A., Coughlin, J.F.: The validity of driving simulation for assessing differences between in-vehicle informational interfaces: A comparison with field testing. Ergonomics 53(3), 404–420 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yan, X., Abdel-Aty, M., Radwan, E., Wang, X., Chilakapati, P.: Validating a driving simulator using surrogate safety measures. Accident Analysis & Prevention 40(1), 274–288 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yutao Ba
    • 1
  • Wei Zhang
    • 1
  • Gavriel Salvendy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations