Advertisement

Challenges and Solutions for Urban-Tourist Water Supply on Mediterranean Tourist Islands: The Case of Majorca, Spain

  • Angela Hof
  • Macià Blázquez-Salom
  • Margalida Comas Colom
  • Alfredo Barón Périz
Chapter
Part of the Springer Water book series (SPWA)

Abstract

Water supply on Mediterranean tourist islands becomes a major challenge due to anthropogenic pressure on water resources and global climate change. Asymmetries of water availability and demand are shown for the case of Majorca, focusing on the urban-tourist sector. Quality tourism development is increasing water demand, its unequal access and unsustainable use. Supply solutions rely on water supply enhancement through technological fixes, such as shipping freshwater from the mainland, or the desalination of brackish groundwater and seawater. Supply enhancement is entrenched in urban-tourist and demographic growth as major drivers and results of the Spanish economic development from 1995 to 2007, with urban-tourist growth being supported by technical water supply solutions. Instead of redirecting the discourse to water demand management, supply enhancement and technological, market-oriented solutions for accommodating rising water demand are favored. These supply solutions retard innovative and proactive water policies. On the other hand, successful public policies have constrained urban sprawl and golf courses development in order to enhance natural resources management; particularly in the Balearic Islands in comparison with the Spanish coastal areas in general (Rullan 2011). Palma and Calvià are studied in detail as two mature and representative island tourist destinations in the Mediterranean: Their urban-tourist water supplies increasingly rely on desalinated water, provided through expensive infrastructure. Notwithstanding, the production of desalinated water dropped by 20 % since the beginning of the current financial and economic crisis. Reasons for this are the costs for fueling the desalination plants, and the opportunity to extend the overexploitation of the underground water tables that recovered to a better shape thanks to supplementation by desalination and thanks to a long wet period since 2008. The current institutional framework and the detailed characteristics of the regional regulatory framework of water supply is analyzed, showing that meanwhile the regional government should implement the European Union Water Framework Directive, current policies demonstrate a strong normative recoil. Water demand, supply and the reliance on non-conventional sources are spatially uneven, embodied in uneven sociospatial water supply and consumption. However, the current discourse reduces the associated environmental and societal problems to questions of supply enhancement and may retard innovative and proactive water policies dealing with global change pressures such as climate change.

Keywords

Water Demand Water Price Balearic Island Tourist Sector Desalination Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aguiló E, Alegre J, Sard M (2005) The persistence of the sun and sand tourism model. Tour Manag 26(2):219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera KF (2008) La nueva economía del agua. Madrid: los Libros de la CatarataGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcamo J, Moreno J, Nováky B, Bindi M, Corobov R, Devoy RJN, Giannakopoulos C, Martin E, Olesen J, Shividenko A (2007) Europe. In: Parry ML (ed) Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 541–580Google Scholar
  4. Buswell RJ (2011) Mallorca and tourism. History, economy and environment. Channel View Publications, BristolGoogle Scholar
  5. Cabrera E, Cabrera Rochera E, Cobacho R (2010) Water supply in urban areas. In: Garrido A, Llamas MR (eds) Water policy in Spain. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 77–84Google Scholar
  6. Candela L, Bejarano C, Igel W von, Alonso A. (2005) Report on Majorca. In: Donta AA, Lange MA, Herrmann A (eds) Water on Mediterranean Islands: current conditions and prospects for sustainable management. ZUFO-Reports vol 5. Centre for Environmental Research University of Muenster, Muenster, pp 11–95Google Scholar
  7. Candela L, Elorza FJ, Jiménez-Martínez J, von Igel W (2012) Global change and agricultural management options for groundwater sustainability. Comput Electron Agric 86:120–130. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2011.12.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conselleria de Medi Ambient (ed) (2002) Plan Hidrológico de las Islas Baleares. Palma de MajorcaGoogle Scholar
  9. Conselleria de Medi Ambient (ed) (2013) Plan Hidrológico de les Illes Balears. Memoria. Palma de Majorca, p 474Google Scholar
  10. Correia FN (1999) Water resources in the Mediterranean Region. Water Intl 24(1):22–30. doi: 10.1080/02508069908692130 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deyà Tortella B, Tirado D (2011) Hotel water consumption at a seasonal mass tourist destination. The case of the island of Majorca. J Environ Manag 92(10):2568–2579. doi:  10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.024
  12. Dodds R, Kelman I (2008) How climate change is considered in sustainable tourism policies: a case of the Mediterranean Islands of Malta and Mallorca. Tour Rev Intl 12(14):57–70Google Scholar
  13. Domene E, Saurí D, Pares M (2005) Urbanization and sustainable resource use: the case of garden watering in the metropolitan region of Barcelona. Urban Geogr 26(6):520–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Domene E, Saurí D (2006) Urbanisation and water consumption: influencing factors in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona. Urban Stud 43(9):1605–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Donta AA, Lange MA (2008) Water management on Mediterranean Islands: pressure, recommended policy and management options. In: Koundouri P (ed) Coping with water deficiency, vol 48. Springer, Netherlands, pp 11–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Essex S, Kent M, Newnham R (2004) Tourism development in Majorca: is water supply a constraint? J Sustain Tour 12(1):4–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Esteban A (2008) Herencias Y Problemas de La Política Hidráulica Española. Bakeaz/FNCA, BilbaoGoogle Scholar
  18. Esteban A, Naredo JM (2004) Ideas y propuestas para una nueva política del agua en España. Bilbao:Bakeaz/FNCA; 2004Google Scholar
  19. Eurostat (2009) MEDSTAT II: ‘water and tourism’ pilot study. Methodologies and working papers, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  20. Falkenmark M, Lundqvist J, Widstrand C (1989) Macro-scale water scarcity requires micro-scale approaches. Nat Resour Forum 13(4):258–267. doi: 10.1111/j.1477-8947.1989.tb00348.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garcia C, Servera J (2003) Impacts of tourism development on water demand and beach degradation on the island of Majorca (Spain). Geografiska Annaler, Series A 85(3/4):287–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garrido A, Calatrava J (2010) Trends in water pricing and markets. In: Garrido A, Llamas MR (eds) Water policy in Spain. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 131–144Google Scholar
  23. Gikas P, Angelakis AN (2009) Water resources management in Crete and in the Aegean Islands, with emphasis on the utilization of non-conventional water sources. Desalination 248(1–3):1049–1064. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2008.10.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gössling S, Peeters P, Hall CM, Ceron J, Dubois G, Lehmann LV, Scott D (2012) Tourism and water use: supply, demand, and security. An international review. Tour Manag 33(1):1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.03.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hof A, Schmitt T (2011) Urban and tourist land use patterns and water consumption: evidence from Mallorca, Balearic islands. Land Use Policy 28(4):792–804. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2011.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Iglesias A, Garrote L, Flores F, Moneo M (2007) Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resour Manag 21:775–788. doi: 10.1007/s11269-006-9111-6 Google Scholar
  27. Kent M, Newnham R, Essex S (2002) Tourism and sustainable water supply in Majorca: a geographical analysis. Appl Geogr 22(4):351–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lazarova V, Levine B, Sack J, Cirelli G, Jeffrey P, Muntau H, Salgot M, Brissaud F (2001) Role of water reuse for enhancing integrated water management in Europe and Mediterranean countries. Water Sci Technol 43(10):25–33Google Scholar
  29. Maestu J, Gómez C (2010) Water uses in transition. In: Garrido A, Llamas MR (eds) Water policy in Spain. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 39–48Google Scholar
  30. Mantecón A (2010) Tourist modernisation and social legitimation in Spain. Intl J Tour Res 12(5):617–626. doi: 10.1002/jtr.784 Google Scholar
  31. March H, Saurí D (2010) The suburbanization of water scarcity in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region: sociodemographic and urban changes influencing domestic water consumption. Prof Geogr 62(1):32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Masjuan E, March H, Domene E, Saurí D (2008) Conflicts and struggles over urban water cycles: the case of barcelona 1880–2004. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 99(4):426–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Milano M, Ruelland D, Fernandez S, Dezetter A, Fabre J, Servat E, Fritsch J, Ardoin-Bardin S, Thivet G (2013) Current state of Mediterranean water resources and future trends under climatic and anthropogenic changes. Hydrol Sci J 58(3):498–518. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2013.774458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Morán C (2013) La reforma del agua dará más garantías al inversor privado. Entrevista a Federico Ramos, Secretario de Estado de Medio Ambiente”. Expansión, p 17Google Scholar
  35. O’Reilly K (2007) Emerging tourism futures: residential tourism and its implications. In: Geoffrey C, Sibley R (eds) Going abroad. Travel, tourism, and migration: cross-cultural perspectives on mobility. Cambridge Scholars Pub., Newcastle, pp 144–157Google Scholar
  36. Palutikof J, Holt T (2004) Climate change and the occurrence of extremes: some implications for the Mediterranean Basin. In: Marquina Barrio A (ed) Environmental challenges in the Mediterranean 2000–2050. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 61–73Google Scholar
  37. Parés M, March H, Saurí D (2013) Atlantic Gardens in Mediterranean climates: understanding the production of suburban natures in Barcelona. Int J Urban Reg Res 37(1):328–347. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01118.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Resolution number 5708 (2013) Resolución del vicepresidente económico, de Promoción Empresarial y de Empleo de 18 de marzo de 2013 por la que se publica la actualización de las bases, los tipos de gravamen y las cuotas tributarias de los tributos propios de la Comunidad Autónoma de las Illes Balears para el año 2013. Official Bulletin of the Balearic Islands 43:14448–14516. http://www.atib.es/normas/Resoluci%C3%B3%20actualitzaci%C3%B3%202013_s.pdf. Acessed 7 Jan 2014
  39. Rodriguez Diaz JA, Knox JW, Weatherhead EK (2007) Competing demands for irrigation water: golf and agriculture in Spain. Irrig Drain 56(5):541–549. doi: 10.1002/ird.317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Romero Renau Ld (2006) Privatització de la gestió de l’aigua i govern del territori a l’arc mediterrani espanyol. Documents d’anàlisi geogràfica (Doc. Anàl. Geogr.) 48:35–59Google Scholar
  41. Rullan O (2011) La regulación del crecimiento urbanístico en el litoral mediterráneo español. Ciudad y Territorio: Estudios Territoriales 168:279–297Google Scholar
  42. Saurí D, Olcina J, March H, Martin-Víde J, Vera F, Padilla E, Serra-Llobet A (2011) ESPON climate: climate change and territorial effects on regions and local economies. Final Report Annex 4: Case Study Mediterranean Coast of SpainGoogle Scholar
  43. Saurí D, Olcina J, Rico A (2007) The March towards privatisation? Urban water supply and sanitation in Spain. J Compar Social Welf 23(2):131–139. doi: 10.1080/17486830701494616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmitt T, Blázquez M (2003) Der dritte Tourismusboom auf Mallorca (1991–2000). Zukunftsweisender Trend oder überschrittener Zenit? Tourismus J 7(4):505–522Google Scholar
  45. Tamoh K, von Igel W, Soler M, Candela L (2008) Analysis of water use patterns and conflicts in the Sa Pobla Plain and Alcudia Bay (Majorca, Spain). Options Mediterraneennes 83:131–142Google Scholar
  46. Trillas A (2013) Rescate a cambio de gestión privada. Alternativas económicas, 5 (July/August), pp 8–11Google Scholar
  47. Vidal M, Domene E, Saurí D (2010) Changing geographies of water-related consumption: residential swimming pools in suburban Barcelona. Area 43(1):67–75. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2010.00961.x Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela Hof
    • 1
  • Macià Blázquez-Salom
    • 2
  • Margalida Comas Colom
    • 3
  • Alfredo Barón Périz
    • 3
  1. 1.Landscape Ecology/Biogeography, Geography DepartmentRuhr University BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.Research Group on Sustainability and Territory (GIST), Earth Sciences DepartmentUniversity of the Balearic IslandsPalma (Majorca)Spain
  3. 3.Govern de Les Illes Balears, Conselleria D’Agricultura, Medi Ambient I Territori, Servei D’Estudis I PlanificacióDirecció General de Recursos Hídrics, C/Gremi de CorredorsPalma (Majorca)Spain

Personalised recommendations