Advertisement

Unconventional Water Resources of Agricultural Origin and Their Re-utilization Potential for Development of Desert Land Aquaculture in the Aral Sea Basin

  • B. K. Karimov
  • M. Matthies
  • B. G. Kamilov
Chapter
Part of the Springer Water book series (SPWA)

Abstract

The average long-term annual volume of unconventional mineralized water resources of agricultural origin (MWRA) in Aral Sea basin (ASB), consisting of drainage (about 95 %) and wastewater from industry and municipal users (about 5 %) in 2000–2009 was around 30 km3 with 24.3 km3 generated on Uzbek territory. Only 3 % (0.7 km3) of MWRA are used for irrigation again and for fish-farming. During the last decade, a group of German and Uzbek scientists has jointly investigated the suitability of the hydrological, hydrochemical and hydrobiological regimes of MWRA and their ecological sustainability for intensive desert/arid land aquaculture (DALA) development. A SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities of re-using MWRA for DALA, and threats of vulnerability has revealed suitability (both in terms of water quantity and quality) of MWRA for the development of intensive aquaculture-agriculture systems. The latter implies better management practices including combined production of fishes and other aquatic organisms, diversification of cultured species and usage of halophytes, where the water enriched with biogenous will be used for plant growth. At least 10 km3 MWRA are generated and flowing annually into the natural depressions plus more than 15 large brackish water lakes (3–12 g salt/L) with 9,000 km2 of total water surface area fed by drainage waters. This excess of unconventional water in the region will allow production of more than 300,000 t/y fish additionally in Uzbekistan, which will generate substantial employment and income for people in rural areas.

Aral Sea basin Mineralized waters Desert/arid land aquaculture SWOT analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present study was supported by grant of the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU, 2006–2007) and the State Grant of the Republic of Uzbekistan FA-A6-T233 (2012–2014).

References

  1. Appelbaum S (2011) Aquaculture experiences in the Negev Desert in Israel. In: Crespi V, Lovatelli A (eds) Aquaculture in desert and arid lands: developmental constraints and opportunities. FAO technical workshop, 6–8 July 2010, Hermosillo. FAO fisheries and aquaculture proceedings, No. 20. Rome, p 113–118Google Scholar
  2. Crootof AB (2011) Assessing water resources in Khorezm, Uzbekistan for the development of aquaculture. A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Hydrology. University of Nevada, Reno, 114 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Doudoroff P (1957) Water quality requirements of fishes and effects of toxic substances. In: Brown ME (ed) The physiology of fishes, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 403–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. FAO (2011a) Aquaculture in desert and arid lands: developmental constraints and opportunities. In: Crespi V, Lovatelli A (eds) FAO technical workshop, 6–8 July 2010, Hermosillo, Mexico. FAO fisheries and aquaculture proceedings, vol 20. Rome, 202 pGoogle Scholar
  5. FAO (2011b) EAF planning and implementation tools. SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threat) ANALYSIS. EAF Tool fact sheets (online). Rome. Updated 18 Oct 2011. http://www.fao.org/fishery/eaf-net/eaftool/eaf_tool_45/en. Accessed 12 Dec 2013
  6. Hulata G, Simon Y (2011) An overview on desert and aquaculture development in Israel. In: Crespi V, Lovatelli A (eds) Aquaculture in desert and arid lands: developmental constraints and opportunities. FAO technical workshop, 6–8 July 2010, Hermosillo. FAO fisheries and aquaculture proceedings, No. 20. Rome, p 85–112Google Scholar
  7. Kamilov B, Karimov B, Keyser D (2004) The modern state of fisheries in the Republic of Uzbekistan and its perspectives—World. Aquac Mag 35(1):8–14Google Scholar
  8. Kanygina AV (1957) Effect of industrial sewage waters solvable mineral salts on the water organisms. Nauka, Moscow, 126 p (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. Karimov BK (1994) Ecological classification of hydroecosystems in the Aral Sea basin. Uzbek Bio J 3:35–37 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. Karimov BK (1995) Ecological and toxicological problems of the state and of fishery use of hydroecosystems in the Aral Sea basin. Avtoreferat of Doctoral Dissertation, “Fan” Press, Tashkent, 51 p (in Russian)Google Scholar
  11. Karimov BK (2003) Saving the Aral Sea. Humboldt-Cosmos 82:24–25Google Scholar
  12. Karimov BK, Keyser D (1998) The effect of salt composition on the salinity tolerance of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during early ontogeny. Archive Fish. Mar. Res. 46(3):225–239Google Scholar
  13. Karimov BK, Razakov RM (1990) The evaluation of toxicological situation on example of Central Asian region. In: Lvov VA, Kuzin AK (eds) The fundamentals of water protection. Kharkov, pp 26–34 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Karimov B, Keyser D, Kurambaeva M (2002) Impact of agriculture on deltaic hydroecosystems of the Aral Sea basin: ecotoxicological studies. In.: Contributions to the 4th international symposium on “physiology and behaviour of wild and zoo animals”. Berlin, p 183Google Scholar
  15. Karimov B, Joldasova I, Blanchoud H, Kurambaeva M, Mullaboev N, Chevreuil M (2004) Problems of sustainable fishery and aquaculture in the southern Aral Sea region under anthropogenic impact. In: Abstract volume: the 14th Stockholm water symposium, Aug 16–20, pp 272–273Google Scholar
  16. Karimov B, Lieth H, Kurambaeva M, Matsapaeva I (2005) The problems of fishermen in the Southern Aral Sea Region. J Mar Sci/Special Issue: Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 10:87–103 (Nihoul JCJ, Aladin N, Glantz M (Guest eds))Google Scholar
  17. Karimov BK, Kamilov BG, Upare M, Van Anrooy R, Bueno P, Shohimardonov DR (2009) Inland capture fisheries and aquaculture in the republic of Uzbekistan: current status and planning. FAO Fish Aquac Circular Rome 1030(1):124 pGoogle Scholar
  18. Khlebovich VV (1974) Critical salinity of biological processes. Nauka, Leningrad, 236 p (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. National Report on the state of nature protection and natural resources utilization in the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2002–2004 (2005) State Committee on Nature Protection of Tashkent, 131 p (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. National Report on the state of nature protection and natural resources utilization in the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2008–2011 (2013) State Committee on Nature Protection of Tashkent, 254 p (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. Ruecker GR, Shi Z, Mueller M, Conrad C, Ibragimov N, Lamers JPA, Martius C, Strunz G, Dech SW (2007) Cotton yield estimation in Uzbekistan integrating modis, landsat etm + and field data. ISPRS Archives XXXVI-8/W48 Workshop proceedings: Remote sensing support to crop yield forecast and area estimates, pp 123–128. http://www.isprs.org/proceedings/XXXVI/8-W48/123_XXXVI-8-W48.pdf. Accessed 23 Aug 2013
  22. Sadek S (2011) An overview on desert aquaculture in Egypt. In: Crespi V, Lovatelli A (eds) Aquaculture in desert and arid lands: developmental constraints and opportunities. FAO technical workshop, 6–8 July 2010, Hermosillo. FAO fisheries and aquaculture proceedings, No. 20. Rome, p 141–158Google Scholar
  23. Smith M, Veth P, Hiscock P, Wallis LA (2008) Global desert in perspective. In: Smith M, Veth P, Hiscock P (eds) Desert peoples: archaeological perspectives. Blackwell Publishing, pp. 1–14Google Scholar
  24. United Nations (UN) (2010) Uzbekistan second review. Environ Perform Rev Ser 29:201Google Scholar
  25. United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (2007) Water critical resource for Uzbekistan’s future) Tashkent, 128 pGoogle Scholar
  26. United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (2008) Environmental profile of Uzbekistan based on indicators. 88 pGoogle Scholar
  27. Wecker B, Karimov B, Kamilov B, Matthies M, Lieth H (2007) Sustainable aquaculture in recirculating systems; Feasibility study for the catchment area of the Aral Sea. Contribution no. 40 of the Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrueck. (Ed. Prof. Dr. Michael Matthies). ISSN Nr. 1433-3805. http://www.usf.uos.de/projects/usf/literatur/beitraege/texte/040-weckeretal.pdf. Accessed 23 Aug 2013
  28. Yakubov XE, Yakubov MA, Yakubov SX (2011) Collector-drainage waters in Central Asia and estimation of their use for irrigation. IWP AS Uzbekistan, SIC ICWC, Tashkent, 189 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Gene Pool of Plants and Animals World of Uzbekistan Academy of SciencesTashkentUzbekistan
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Systems ResearchUniversity of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany

Personalised recommendations