Advertisement

Predicting Eyes’ Fixations in Movie Videos: Visual Saliency Experiments on a New Eye-Tracking Database

  • Petros Koutras
  • Athanasios Katsamanis
  • Petros Maragos
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8532)

Abstract

In this paper we describe the newly created eye tracking annotated database Eye-Tracking Movie Database ETMD and give some preliminary experimental results on this dataset using our new visual saliency frontend. We have developed a database with eye-tracking human annotation that comprises video clips from Hollywood movies, which are longer in duration than the existing databases’ videos and include more complex semantics. Our proposed visual saliency frontend is based on both low-level features, such as intensity, color and spatio-temporal energy, and face detection results and provides a single saliency volume map. The described new eye-tracking database can become useful in many applications while our computational frontend shows to be promising as it gave good results on predicting the eye’s fixation according to certain metrics.

Keywords

Eye-tracking Database Visual Saliency Spatio-Temporal Visual Frontend 3D Gabor Filters Lab Color Space 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Borji, A., Itti, L.: State-of-the-art in visual attention modeling. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 35(1), 185–207 (2013)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Evangelopoulos, G., Zlatintsi, A., Potamianos, A., Maragos, P., Rapantzikos, K., Skoumas, G., Avrithis, Y.: Multimodal saliency and fusion for movie summarization based on aural, visual, textual attention. IEEE Trans. on Multimedia 15(7) (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Treisman, A., Gelade, G.: A feature integration theory of attention. Cognit. Psychology 12(1), 97–136 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koch, C., Ullman, S.: Shifts in selective visual attention: towards the underlying neural circuitry. Human Neurobiology 4(4), 219–227 (1985)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Itti, L., Koch, C., Niebur, E.: A model of saliency-based visual attention for rapid scene analysis. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 20(11), 1254–1259 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borji, A., Sihite, D.N., Itti, L.: Quantitative analysis of human-model agreement in visual saliency modeling: A comparative study. IEEE Trans. Image Processing 22(1), 55–69 (2013)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poynton, C.: Digital Video and HD: Algorithms and Interfaces, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufmann (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adelson, E.H., Bergen, J.R.: Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 2(2), 284–299 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heeger, D.J.: Model for the extraction of image flow. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 4(8), 1455–1471 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bovik, A.C., Gopal, N., Emmoth, T., Restrepo, A.: Localized Measurement of Emergent Image Frequencies by Gabor Wavelets. IEEE Trans. Information Theory 38, 691–712 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Havlicek, J.P., Harding, D.S., Bovik, A.C.: Multidimensional quasi-eigenfunction approximations and multicomponent am-fm models. IEEE Trans. Image Processing 9(2), 227–242 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Viola, P., Jones, M.J.: Robust real-time face detection. Int’l. J. Comput. Vis. 57(2), 137–154 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wyszecki, G., Stiles, W.S.: Color Science, 2nd edn. J. Wiley & Sons, NY (1982)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gabor, D.: Theory of Communication. IEE Journal (London) 93, 429–457 (1946)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daugman, J.: Uncertainty Relation for Resolution in Space, Spatial Frequency and Orientation Optimized by Two-Dimensional Visual Cortical Filters. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 2(7), 1160–1169 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daugman, J.G.: Two-dimensional spectral analysis of cortical receptive field profiles. Vision Research 20(10), 847–856 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Green, D.M., Swets, J.A.: Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Wiley, New York (1966)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petros Koutras
    • 1
  • Athanasios Katsamanis
    • 1
  • Petros Maragos
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations