Assessing Temporal Harmony: The Issue of a Balanced Time Perspective



This chapter provides a detailed analysis of one of the central concepts of Zimbardo and Boyd’s time perspective theory: the balanced time perspective. Since their earliest works in the area, the issue of temporal harmony attracted attention of researchers and practitioners alike, especially within the field of positive psychology. Here, we provide a deepened consideration of the nature of balanced time perspective, its origins, and consequences. Moreover, we review the existing empirical operationalizations of temporal harmony, both those derived from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and those created independently from it. We analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each method and reflect on future directions in research on the balanced time perspective issue.


Time Perspective Time Zone Future Time Perspective Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Future Positive 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyNational Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia

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