Time Perspective Coaching

  • Ilona Boniwell
  • Evgeny Osin


Learning to balance one’s time perspective enables individuals to avoid the negative consequences of excessive reliance on particular time frames while optimizing their cognitive flexibility to shift temporal focus to satisfy situational demands. Achieving a balanced time perspective, or even simply minimizing existing excessive biases, is not easy. It requires an awareness of one’s current temporal orientation, overcoming cultural, social and situational pressures for sustaining a more limited orientation, and a will to live a healthy, socially connected, productive life. This chapter presents a variety of methods, including both evidence-based interventions and questions that can be employed in coaching sessions to address and develop different forms of imbalance in clients’ time perspective.


Time Management Time Perspective Mindfulness Meditation Coaching Session Expressive Writing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Atchley, R. C. (2001). The influence of spiritual beliefs and practices on the relation between time and aging. In S. H. McFadden & R. C. Atchley (Eds.), Aging and the meaning of time: A multidisciplinary exploration (pp. 157–170). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Bond, M. J., & Feather, N. T. (1988). Some correlates of structure and purpose in the use of time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(2), 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boniwell, I. (2005). Beyond time management: How the latest research on time perspective and perceived time use can assist clients with time-related concerns. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 3(2), 61–74.Google Scholar
  4. Boniwell, I., & Zimbardo, P. (2004). Balancing time perspective in pursuit of optimal functioning. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 165–179). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Boniwell, I., Osin, E., Linley, P. A., & Ivanchenko, G. (2010). A question of balance: Examining relationships between time perspective and measures of well-being in the British and Russian student samples. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(1), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bost, J. M. (1984). Retaining students on academic probation: Effects of time management peer counseling on students’ grades. Journal of Learning Skills, 3, 38–43.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, K., & Ryan, R. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryant, F. B., & Veroff, J. (2007). Savouring: A new model of positive experiences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  9. Bryant, F. B., Smart, C. M., & King, S. P. (2005). Using the past to enhance the presence: Boosting happiness through positive reminiscence. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 227–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Claessens, B. J. C. (2004). Perceived control of time: Time management and personal effectiveness at work. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Technisce Universiteit Eindhoven, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  11. Claessens, B. J. C., van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Roe, R. A. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review, 36(2), 255–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1992). Flow: The psychology of happiness. London: Rider.Google Scholar
  13. Desmurget, M. (2012). TV Lobotomie. Paris: Max Milo Éditions.Google Scholar
  14. Freedman, J. L., & Edwards, D. R. (1988). Time pressure, task performance, and enjoyment. In J. E. McGrath (Ed.), The social psychology of time: New perspectives (pp. 113–133). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Fredrickson, B. (2009). Positivity: Top-notch research reveals the 3-to-1 ratio that will change your life. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  16. Friedberg, J. P., Suchday, S., & Shelov, D. V. (2007). The impact of forgiveness on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 65(2), 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frisch, M. B. (1998). Quality of life therapy and assessment in health care. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5(1), 19–40.Google Scholar
  18. Frisch, M. B. (2006). Quality of life therapy: Applying a life satisfaction approach to positive psychology and cognitive therapy. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Frisch, M. B., Clark, M. P., Rouse, S. V., Rudd, M. D., Paweleck, J. K., Greenstone, A., et al. (2005). Predictive and treatment validity of life satisfaction and the Quality of Life Inventory. Assessment, 12(1), 66–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goleman, D. (1988). The meditative mind. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher.Google Scholar
  21. Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hall, B. L., & Hursch, D. E. (1982). An evaluation of the effects of a time management training program on work efficiency. Journal of Organizational Behaviour Management, 3, 73–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanel, F. J. (1982). Field testing the effectiveness of a self-instruction time management manual with managerial staff in an institutional setting. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(8-B), 3400.Google Scholar
  24. Jahoda, M. (1981). Work, employment, and unemployment: Values, theories, and approaches in social research. American Psychologist, 36(2), 184–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York, NY: Hyperion Books.Google Scholar
  26. Lakein, A. (1973). How to get control of your time and your life. New York: Signet.Google Scholar
  27. Längle, A. (2003). Burnout–Existential meaning and possibilities of prevention. European Psychotherapy, 4(1), 107–121.Google Scholar
  28. Larsson, J., & Sanne, C. (2005). Self-help books on avoiding time shortage. Time and Society, 14, 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewin, K. (1942/1997). Time perspective and morale. In K. Lewin (Ed.), Resolving social conflicts and field theory in social science (pp. 80–93). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  30. Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). The how of happiness: A practical guide to getting the life you want. London: Sphere.Google Scholar
  31. Lyubomirsky, S., Sousa, L., & Dickerhoof, R. (2006). The costs and benefits of writing, talking, and thinking about life's triumphs and defeats. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(4), 692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Macan, T. H. (1994). Time management: Test of a process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Macan, T. H. (1996). Time-management training: Effects on time behaviors, attitudes, and job performance. Journal of Psychology, 130, 229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students’ time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 760–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maddi, S. R. (2013). Hardiness: Turning stressful circumstances into resilient growth. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McCullough, M. E., & Witvliet, C. V. (2002). The psychology of forgiveness. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 446–458). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Muraven, M., Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (1999). Longitudinal improvement of self-regulation through practice: Building self-control strength through repeated exercise. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139(4), 446–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Neale, M. I. (2006). Mindfulness meditation: An integration of perspectives from Buddhism, science, and clinical psychology. Unpublished doctoral thesis, California Institute of Integral Studies, San-Francisco.Google Scholar
  39. Oaten, M., & Cheng, K. (2006). Longitudinal gains in self‐regulation from regular physical exercise. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11(4), 717–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Penedo, F. J., & Dahn, J. R. (2005). Exercise and well-being: A review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(2), 189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8(3), 162–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pennebaker, J. W. (2004). Expressive writing and the regulation of emotion over time. Psychophysiology, 41, S23–S23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T., Park, N., & Peterson, P. (2005). Positive psychology progress, empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sheldon, K. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2004). Achieving sustainable new happiness: Prospects, practices, and prescriptions. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 127–145). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Tyrrell, B. (1995). Time in our lives: Facts and analysis on the 90s. Demos, 5, 23–25.Google Scholar
  47. Witvliet, C. V., Ludwig, T. E., & Vander Laan, K. L. (2001). Granting forgiveness or harboring grudges: Implications for emotion, physiology, and health. Psychological Science, 12(2), 117–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zimbardo, P. G. (2002). Just think about it: Time to take our time. Psychology Today, 35, 62.Google Scholar
  49. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Positran and Department of PsychologyAnglia Ruskin UniversityParisFrance
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNational Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations