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Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Obesity-Related Tumorigenesis

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 824)

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species induce oxidative modification of critical macromolecules. Oxygen derived free radicals may act as potential cytotoxic intermediates inducing inflammatory and degenerative processes, or as signal messengers for the regulation of gene expression. This dual effect mainly depends on the availability of free radicals in terms of concentration, as well as on the environmental characteristics in which they are produced. The formation of free radicals has been proposed to be the linking factor between certain metabolic disturbances and cancer. Circulating mononuclear cells of patients with high cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome or obesity present lower levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of oxidative stress by-products such as isoprostanes or the DNA oxidized and highly mutagenic base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine. Overweight or obese subjects also exhibit hormonal changes as a consequence of the increase of mass fat, and these hormonal alterations have been implicated in the alteration of different signal transduction mechanisms and in cell growth and differentiation. A significant correlation has been found between body mass index and cancer. The biological factors and molecular mechanisms implicated in obesity associated cancer susceptibility will be reviewed.

Keywords

Cancer DNA damage Free radicals Obesity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

GTS thanks grants from Conselleria de Sanitat de la Generalitat de València and Instituto de Salud Carlos III: ACOM/2012/238; PI10/00802; PI13/01848; CIBEROBN 12/03/30016

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service of Clinical Analysis-CDB, Oxidative Stress Commission-SEQCGeneral University Hospital-CIBEROBN, University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Endocrinology and Nutrition UnitGeneral University Hospital, University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  3. 3.Service of Internal MedicineGeneral University Hospital, University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  4. 4.Service of General and Digestive SurgeryGeneral University Hospital, University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine-CIBEROBNUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  6. 6.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  7. 7.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of MedicineGeneral University Hospital-CDB, University of Valencia, Oxidative Stress Commission-SEQCValenciaSpain

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