The Gradual Verifier

  • Stephan Arlt
  • Cindy Rubio-González
  • Philipp Rümmer
  • Martin Schäf
  • Natarajan Shankar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8430)


Static verification traditionally produces yes/no answers. It either provides a proof that a piece of code meets a property, or a counterexample showing that the property can be violated. Hence, the progress of static verification is hard to measure. Unlike in testing, where coverage metrics can be used to track progress, static verification does not provide any intermediate result until the proof of correctness can be computed. This is in particular problematic because of the inevitable incompleteness of static verifiers.

To overcome this, we propose a gradual verification approach, GraVy. For a given piece of Java code, GraVy partitions the statements into those that are unreachable, or from which exceptional termination is impossible, inevitable, or possible. Further analysis can then focus on the latter case. That is, even though some statements still may terminate exceptionally, GraVy still computes a partial result. This allows us to measure the progress of static verification.We present an implementation of GraVy and evaluate it on several open source projects.


Error Location Original Program Symbolic Execution Open Source Project Feasible Path 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephan Arlt
    • 1
  • Cindy Rubio-González
    • 2
  • Philipp Rümmer
    • 3
  • Martin Schäf
    • 4
  • Natarajan Shankar
    • 4
  1. 1.Université du LuxembourgLuxembourg
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Uppsala UniversitySweden
  4. 4.SRI InternationalUSA

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