Advertisement

History and Current Status of ICBT

  • Gerhard Andersson
  • Per Carlbring
  • Nils Lindefors

Abstract

We begin this chapter with a discussion of the history of ICBT and its roots in bibliotherapy and computerised CBT. We then provide a brief description of one way of administering guided ICBT, including the role of the therapist and data security issues. This description is followed by examples of conditions that are not covered later in the book, such as specific phobias and addictions. We end this chapter with a discussion of technical developments, cost-effectiveness and implementation.

Keywords

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Augmented Reality Pathological Gambling Social Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Almlöv J, Carlbring P, Berger T, Cuijpers P, Andersson G (2009) Therapist factors in internet-delivered CBT for major depressive disorder. Cogn Behav Ther 38:247–254. doi: 10.1080/16506070903116935 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Almlöv J, Carlbring P, Källqvist K, Paxling B, Cuijpers P, Andersson G (2011) Therapist effects in guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders. Behav Cogn Psychother 39:311–322. doi: 10.1017/S135246581000069X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amir N, Beard C, Taylor CT, Klumpp H, Elias J, Burns M et al (2009) Attention training in individuals with generalized social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 77:961–973. doi: 10.1037/a0016685 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersson G (2014) The internet and CBT: a clinical guide. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson G, Hedman E (2013) Effectiveness of guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy in regular clinical settings. Verhaltenstherapie 23:140–148. doi: 10.1159/000354779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson G, Strömgren T, Ström L, Lyttkens L (2002) Randomised controlled trial of internet based cognitive behavior therapy for distress associated with tinnitus. Psychosom Med 64:810–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson G, Asmundson GJG, Carlbring P, Ghaderi A, Hofmann SG, Stewart SH (2005a) Is CBT already the dominant paradigm in psychotherapy research and practice? Cogn Behav Ther 34:1–2. doi: 10.1080/16506070510008489 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Andersson G, Bergström J, Holländare F, Carlbring P, Kaldo V, Ekselius L (2005b) Internet-based self-help for depression: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 187:456–461. doi: 10.1192/bjp.187.5.456 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Andersson G, Bergström J, Buhrman M, Carlbring P, Holländare F, Kaldo V et al (2008) Development of a new approach to guided self-help via the Internet. The Swedish experience. J Technol Human Serv 26:161–181. doi: 10.1080/15228830802094627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andersson G, Waara J, Jonsson U, Malmaeus F, Carlbring P, Öst L-G (2009) Internet-based self-help vs. one-session exposure in the treatment of spider phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Cogn Behav Ther 38:114–120. doi: 10.1080/16506070902931326 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Andersson G, Carlbring P, Kaldo V, Cuijpers P (2010) Challenges and potential solutions in integrating internet-based CBT into specialist services. In: Bennett-Levy J, Christensen H, Farrand P, Griffiths K, Kavanagh D, Klein B et al (eds) Oxford guide to low intensity CBT interventions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Andersson G, Waara J, Jonsson U, Malmaeus F, Carlbring P, Öst L-G (2013) Internet-based vs. one-session exposure treatment of snake phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Cogn Behav Ther 42:284–291. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2013.844202 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arpin-Cribbie C, Irvine J, Ritvo P (2012) Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for perfectionism: a randomized controlled trial. Psychother Res 22(2):194–207. doi: 10.1080/10503307.2011.637242 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barak A (2013) Concepts, definitions, and applications: the terminology chaos of Internet-supported psychotherapeutic interventions. In: Paper presented at the The International Society for Research on Internet Interventions 6th Chicago MeetingGoogle Scholar
  15. Barlow DH (2004) Psychological treatments. Am Psychol 59:869–878CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Baumeister H, Reichler L, Munzinger M, Lin J (2014) The impact of guidance on internet-based mental health interventions – a systematic review. Intern Intervent 1(4):205–215. doi: 10.1016/j.invent.2014.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baus O, Bouchard S (2014) Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: a review. Front Hum Neurosci 8:112. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00112 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Bennett K, Bennett AJ, Griffiths KM (2010) Security considerations for e-mental health interventions. J Med Internet Res 12(5):e61. doi: 10.2196/jmir.1468 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Blankers M, Koeter MW, Schippers GM (2011) Internet therapy versus internet self-help versus no treatment for problematic alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 79(3):330–341. doi: 10.1037/a0023498 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boettcher J, Leek L, Matson L, Holmes EA, Browning M, MacLeod C et al (2013) Internet-based attention modification for social anxiety: a randomised controlled comparison of training towards negative and training towards positive cues. PLoS One 8:e71760. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071760 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Boettcher J, Hasselrot J, Sund E, Andersson G, Carlbring P (2014a) Combining attention training with internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help for social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Cogn Behav Ther 43:34–48. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2013.809141 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boettcher J, Rozental A, Andersson G, Carlbring P (2014b) Side effects in internet-based interventions for social anxiety disorder. Intern Intervent 1:3–11. doi: 10.1016/j.invent.2014.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlbring P, Smit F (2008) Randomized trial of internet-delivered self-help with telephone support for pathological gamblers. J Consult Clin Psychol 76:1090–1094. doi: 10.1037/a0013603 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Carlbring P, Westling BE, Ljungstrand P, Ekselius L, Andersson G (2001) Treatment of panic disorder via the internet- a randomized trial of a self-help program. Behav Ther 32:751–764. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(01)80019-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carlbring P, Bohman S, Brunt S, Buhrman M, Westling BE, Ekselius L et al (2006) Remote treatment of panic disorder: a randomized trial of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy supplemented with telephone calls. Am J Psychiatry 163:2119–2125. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.12.2119 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Carlbring P, Brunt S, Bohman S, Austin D, Richards JC, Öst L-G et al (2007) Internet vs. paper and pencil administration of questionnaires commonly used in panic/agoraphobia research. Comput Hum Behav 23:1421–1434. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2005.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlbring P, Degerman N, Jonsson J, Andersson G (2011) Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up. Cogn Behav Ther 40:321–334. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2012.689323 Google Scholar
  28. Carlbring P, Apelstrand M, Sehlin H, Amir N, Rousseau A, Hofmann S et al (2012) Internet-delivered attention training in individuals with social anxiety disorder – a double blind randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 12:66CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Castren S, Pankakoski M, Tamminen M, Lipsanen J, Ladouceur R, Lahti T (2013) Internet-based CBT intervention for gamblers in Finland: experiences from the field. Scand J Psychol 54:230–235. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12034 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christensen H, Griffiths KM (2002) The prevention of depression using the internet. Med J Australia 177:S122–S125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Côté S, Bouchard S (2008) Virtual reality exposure for phobias: a critical review. J CyberTher Rehabilitation 1:75–91Google Scholar
  32. Cristea IA, Kok RN, Cuijpers P (2015) Efficacy of cognitive bias modification interventions in anxiety and depression: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 206:7–16. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.146761 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cuijpers P, Donker T, van Straten A, Andersson G (2010) Is guided self-help as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy for depression and anxiety disorders? A meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Psychol Med 40:1943–1957. doi: 10.1017/S0033291710000772 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dever Fitzgerald T, Hunter PV, Hadjistavropoulos T, Koocher GP (2010) Ethical and legal considerations for internet-based psychotherapy. Cogn Behav Ther 39:173–187. doi: 10.1080/16506071003636046 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Donker, T., Blankers, M., Hedman, E., Ljótsson, B., Petrie, K., & Christensen, H. (2015). Economic evaluations of Internet interventions for mental health: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 45:3357–3376. doi: 10.1017/s0033291715001427
  36. Doumas DM, Hannah E (2008) Preventing high-risk drinking in youth in the workplace: a web-based normative feedback program. J Subst Abuse Treat 34:263–271. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2007.04.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Drummond MF, Sculpher MJ, Torrance GW, O’Brien BJ, Stoddart GL (2005) Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  38. Ebert D, Lehr F, Boß L, Riper H, Cuijpers P, Andersson G et al (2014) Efficacy of an internet-based problem-solving training for teachers: results of a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health 40:582–596. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.3449 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. El Alaoui S, Hedman E, Kaldo V, Hesser H, Kraepelien M, Andersson E et al (2015) Effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder in clinical psychiatry. J Consult Clin Psychol 83:902–914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Epstein J, Klinkenberg WD (2001) From Eliza to internet: a brief history of computerized assessment. Comp Hum Behav 17:295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Furmark T, Carlbring P, Hedman E, Sonnenstein A, Clevberger P, Bohman B et al (2009) Guided and unguided self-help for social anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 195:440–447. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.060996 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Haemmerli K, Znoj H, Berger T (2010) Internet-based support for infertile patients: a randomized controlled study. J Behav Med 33:135–146. doi: 10.1007/s10865-009-9243-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hedman E, Ljótsson B, Lindefors N (2012) Cognitive behavior therapy via the internet: a systematic review of applications, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 12:745–764. doi: 10.1586/erp.12.67 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hedman E, Ljótsson B, Rück C, Bergström J, Andersson G, Kaldo V et al (2013) Effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in routine psychiatric care. Acta Psychiatr Scand 128:457–467. doi: 10.1111/acps.12079 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hedman E, Ljótsson B, Kaldo V, Hesser H, El Alaoui S, Kraepelin M et al (2014) Effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in routine psychiatric care. J Affect Disord 155:49–58. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.10.023 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaldo V, Haak T, Buhrman M, Alfonsson S, Larsen H-C, Andersson G (2013) Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for tinnitus patients delivered in a regular clinical setting – outcome and analysis of treatment drop-out. Cogn Behav Ther 42:146–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kaldo-Sandström V, Larsen HC, Andersson G (2004) Internet-based cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment of tinnitus: clinical effectiveness and predictors of outcome. Am J Audiol 13:185–192. doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2004/023) CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kleiboer A, Donker T, Seekles W, van Straten A, Riper H, Cuijpers P (2015) A randomized controlled trial on the role of support in internet-based problem solving therapy for depression and anxiety. Behav Res Ther 72:63–71. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.06.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Klein B, Richards JC (2001) A brief internet-based treatment for panic disorder. Behav Cogn Psychother 29:113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kok RN, van Straten A, Beekman AT, Cuijpers P (2014) Short-term effectiveness of web-based guided self-help for phobic outpatients: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 16, e226. doi: 10.2196/jmir.3429 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Kuckertz JM, Gildebrant E, Liliequist B, Karlström P, Väppling C, Bodlund O et al (2014) Moderation and mediation of the effect of attention training in social anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther 53:30–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lange A, Schrieken B, van den Ven J-P, Bredweg B, Emmelkamp PMG, van der Kolk J et al (2000) “Interapy”: the effects of a short protocolled treatment of posttraumatic stress and pathological grief through the internet. Behav Cogn Psychother 28:175–192Google Scholar
  53. Layard R, Clark DM (2014) Thrive. The power of evidence-based psychological therapies. Allen Lane, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Marks IM, Shaw S, Parkin R (1998) Computer-assisted treatments of mental health problems. Clin Psychol 5:51–170. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00141.x Google Scholar
  55. Marks IM, Cavanagh K, Gega L (2007) Hands-on help. Computer-aided psychotherapy (Maudsley monograph no. 49). Psychology Press, HoveGoogle Scholar
  56. Merry SN, Stasiak K, Shepherd M, Frampton C, Fleming T, Lucassen MF (2012) The effectiveness of SPARX, a computerised self help intervention for adolescents seeking help for depression: randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Br Med J 344:e2598. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e2598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mohr DC, Burns MN, Schueller SM, Clarke G, Klinkman M (2013) Behavioral intervention technologies: evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 35:332–338. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.03.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Olthuis JV, Watt MC, Bailey K, Hayden JA, Stewart SH (2015) Therapist-supported Internet cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD011565. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd011565
  59. Paxling B, Lundgren S, Norman A, Almlöv J, Carlbring P, Cuijpers P et al (2013) Therapist behaviours in internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy: analyses of e-mail correspondence in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Behav Cogn Psychother 41:280–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Proudfoot J, Ryden C, Everitt B, Shapiro DA, Goldberg D, Mann A et al (2004) Clinical efficacy of computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 185:46–54. doi: 10.1192/bjp.185.1.46 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Riley S, Veale D (1999) The internet and its relevance to cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. Behav Cogn Psychother 27:37–46Google Scholar
  62. Riper H, Spek V, Boon B, Conijn B, Kramer J, Martin-Abello K et al (2011) Effectiveness of E-self-help interventions for curbing adult problem drinking: a meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res 13(2):e42. doi: 10.2196/jmir.1691 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Ritterband LM, Gonder-Frederick LA, Cox DJ, Clifton AD, West RW, Borowitz SM (2003) Internet interventions: in review, in use, and into the future. Professional Psychol Res Pract 34:527–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ritterband LM, Andersson G, Christensen HM, Carlbring P, Cuijpers P (2006) Directions for the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions (ISRII). J Med Internet Res 8:e23. doi: 10.2196/jmir.8.3.e23 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Rozental A, Andersson G, Boettcher J, Ebert D, Cuijpers P, Knaevelsrud C et al (2014) Consensus statement on defining and measuring negative effects of internet interventions. Internet Interventions 1:12–19. doi: 10.1016/j.invent.2014.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rozental A, Boettcher J, Andersson G, Schmidt B, Carlbring P (2015a) Negative effects of internet interventions: a qualitative content analysis of patients’ experiences with treatments delivered online. Cogn Behav Ther 44:223–236. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2015.1008033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rozental A, Forsell E, Svensson A, Andersson G, Carlbring P (2015b) Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 83:808–824. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000023 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schneider AJ, Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Bachofen M (2005) Internet-guided self-help with or without exposure therapy for phobic and panic disorders. Psychother Psychosom 74:154–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Storch EA, Caporino NE, Morgan JR, Lewin AB, Rojas A, Brauer L et al (2011) Preliminary investigation of web-camera delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 189:407–412. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.05.047 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ström L, Pettersson R, Andersson G (2000) A controlled trial of self-help treatment of recurrent headache conducted via the internet. J Consult Clin Psychol 68:722–727. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.68.4.722 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Tait RJ, Spijkerman R, Riper H (2013) Internet and computer based interventions for cannabis use: a meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend 133:295–304. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Titov N, Andrews G, Davies M, McIntyre K, Robinson E, Solley K (2010) Internet treatment for depression: a randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs technician assistance. PLoS One 5:e10939. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010939 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Titov N, Dear BF, Johnston L, Lorian C, Zou J, Wootton B et al (2013) Improving adherence and clinical outcomes in self-guided internet treatment for anxiety and depression: randomised controlled trial. PLoS One 8:e62873. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062873 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. van Bastelaar KM, Pouwer F, Cuijpers P, Riper H, Snoek FJ (2011) Web-based depression treatment for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Diabetes Care 34:320–325. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1248 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Vigerland S, Thulin U, Svirsky L, Öst L-G, Ljótsson B, Lindefors N et al (2013) Internet-delivered CBT for children with specific phobia: a pilot study. Cogn Behav Ther 42:303–314. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2013.844201 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Vlaescu G, Carlbring P, Lunner T, Andersson G (2015) An e-platform for rehabilitation of persons with hearing problems. Am J 24:271–275. doi: 10.1044/2015_AJA-14-0083
  77. Watkins PL (2008) Self-help therapies: past and present. In: Watkins PL, Clum GA (eds) Handbook of self-help therapies. Routledge, New York, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  78. Watkins PL, Clum GA (eds) (2008) Handbook of self-help therapies. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Westbrook D, Kennerly H, Kirk J (2011) Cognitive behaviour therapy. Skills and applications, 2nd edn. Sage, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  80. Williams AD, Blackwell SE, Mackenzie A, Holmes EA, Andrews G (2013) Combining imagination and reason in the treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive-bias modification and internet-CBT for depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 81:793–799. doi: 10.1037/a0033247 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Andersson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Per Carlbring
    • 3
  • Nils Lindefors
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Behavioural Sciences and LearningLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of Clinical NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations