Advertisement

Menstruation and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Its Impact on Mood

  • C. Neill Epperson
  • Liisa Hantsoo
Chapter

Abstract

In the premenstruum, women may experience physical or affective symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, or bloating. Such symptoms occur on a continuum, with approximately 3–8 % of women experiencing symptoms severe enough to impact function in daily activities. This severe cluster of symptoms is classified as Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Researchers continue to unravel the biopsychosocial contributors to premenstrual symptoms, including stress and hormonal changes. Women with premenstrual symptoms likely have altered central nervous system sensitivity to normal hormonal fluctuations. In particular, altered GABAergic response to neurosteroid metabolites may be key in the etiology of PMDD. This chapter includes a brief overview of the menstrual cycle, PMDD diagnosis and pathophysiology, and treatment approaches.

Keywords

Luteal Phase Follicular Phase Postpartum Depression Premenstrual Symptom Trier Social Stress Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ACOG. (2001). ACOG Practice bulletin: Premenstrual syndrome. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 73, 183–191.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, S. S., McBride, C. M., & Pirie, P. L. (1991). The shortened premenstrual assessment form. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 36(11), 769–772.Google Scholar
  3. Amin, Z., Canli, T., & Epperson, C. N. (2005). Effect of estrogen-serotonin interactions on mood and cognition. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 4(1), 43–58. doi: 10.1177/1534582305277152.Google Scholar
  4. Angst, J., Sellaro, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Endicott, J. (2001). The epidemiology of perimenstrual psychological symptoms. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104(2), 110–116.Google Scholar
  5. APA. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  6. APA (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: APAGoogle Scholar
  7. Baller, E. B., Wei, S. M., Kohn, P. D., Rubinow, D. R., Alarcón, G., Schmidt, P. J., & Berman, K. F. (2013). Abnormalities of dorsolateral prefrontal function in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(3), 305–314. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12030385
  8. Bancroft, J., & Rennie, D. (1993). The impact of oral contraceptives on the experience of perimenstrual mood, clumsiness, food craving and other symptoms. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 37(2), 195–202.Google Scholar
  9. Bannbers, E., Kask, K., Wikström, J., Risbrough, V., & Poromaa, I. S. (2011). Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder have increased startle modulation during anticipation in the late luteal phase period in comparison to control subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(8), 1184–1192. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.02.011.Google Scholar
  10. Bazán, A. C. B., Montenegro, M. A., Cendes, F., Min, L. L., & Guerreiro, C. A. M. (2005). Menstrual cycle worsening of epileptic seizures in women with symptomatic focal epilepsy. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 63(3), 751–756. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1590/S0004-282X2005000500006.Google Scholar
  11. Berman, S. M., London, E. D., Morgan, M., & Rapkin, A. J. (2013). Elevated gray matter volume of the emotional cerebellum in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 146(2), 266–271. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.06.038.Google Scholar
  12. Bertrand, P. P., Paranavitane, U. T., Chavez, C., Gogos, A., Jones, M., & van den Buuse, M. (2005). The effect of low estrogen state on serotonin transporter function in mouse hippocampus: A behavioral and electrochemical study. Brain Research, 1064(1–2), 10–20. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.10.018.Google Scholar
  13. Bloch, M., Rotenberg, N., Koren, D., & Klein, E. (2006). Risk factors for early postpartum depressive symptoms. General Hospital Psychiatry, 28(1), 3–8. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.08.006.Google Scholar
  14. Borenstein, J., Chiou, C. F., Dean, B., Wong, J., & Wade, S. (2005). Estimating direct and indirect costs of premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 47(1), 26–33.Google Scholar
  15. Borenstein, J. E., Dean, B. B., Endicott, J., Wong, J., Brown, C., Dickerson, V., & Yonkers, K. A. (2003). Health and economic impact of the premenstrual syndrome. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 48(7), 515–524.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, M. A., & Lewis, L. L. (1993). Cycle-phase changes in perceived stress in women with varying levels of premenstrual symptomatology. Research in Nursing & Health, 16(6), 423–429.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, J., O’ Brien, P. M. S., Marjoribanks, J., & Wyatt, K. (2009). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online), (2), CD001396. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001396.pub2
  18. Busse, J. W., Montori, V. M., Krasnik, C., Patelis-Siotis, I., & Guyatt, G. H. (2009). Psychological intervention for premenstrual syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78(1), 6–15. doi: 10.1159/000162296.Google Scholar
  19. Childs, E., Dlugos, A., & De Wit, H. (2010). Cardiovascular, hormonal, and emotional responses to the TSST in relation to sex and menstrual cycle phase. Psychophysiology, 47(3), 550–559. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00961.x.Google Scholar
  20. Chuong, C. J., & Burgos, D. M. (1995). Medical history in women with premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 16(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, L. S., Soares, C. N., Otto, M. W., Sweeney, B. H., Liberman, R. F., & Harlow, B. L. (2002). Prevalence and predictors of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in older premenopausal women. The Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. Journal of Affective Disorders, 70(2), 125–132.Google Scholar
  22. Cunningham, J., Yonkers, K. A., O’Brien, S., & Eriksson, E. (2009). Update on research and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 17(2), 120–137. doi: 10.1080/10673220902891836.Google Scholar
  23. Dambhare, D. G., Wagh, S. V., & Dudhe, J. Y. (2012). Age at menarche and menstrual cycle pattern among school adolescent girls in Central India. Global Journal of Health Science, 4(1), 105–111.Google Scholar
  24. de Wit, H., & Rukstalis, M. (1997). Acute effects of triazolam in women: Relationships with progesterone, estradiol, and allopregnanolone. Psychopharmacology, 130(1), 69–78.Google Scholar
  25. Dennerstein, L., Lehert, P., Burger, H., & Dudley, E. (1999). Mood and the menopausal transition. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(11), 685–691.Google Scholar
  26. Dhingra, V., Magnay, J. L., O’Brien, P. M. S., Chapman, G., Fryer, A. A., & Ismail, K. M. K. (2007). Serotonin receptor 1A C(-1019)G polymorphism associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 110(4), 788–792. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000284448.73490.ac.Google Scholar
  27. Endicott, J., Nee, J., & Harrison, W. (2006). Daily record of severity of problems (DRSP): Reliability and validity. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9(1), 41–49. doi: 10.1007/s00737-005-0103-y.Google Scholar
  28. Epperson, C. N., Haga, K., Mason, G. F., Sellers, E., Gueorguieva, R., Zhang, W., … Krystal, J. H. (2002). Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid levels across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and those with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(9), 851–858.Google Scholar
  29. Epperson, C., Pittman, B., Czarkowski, K. A., Stiklus, S., Krystal, J. H., & Grillon, C. (2007). Luteal-phase accentuation of acoustic startle response in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32(10), 2190–2198. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301351.Google Scholar
  30. Epperson, C., Steiner, M., Hartlage, S. A., Eriksson, E., Schmidt, P. J., Jones, I., & Yonkers, K. A. (2012). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Evidence for a new category for DSM-5. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(5), 465–475.Google Scholar
  31. Evans, S. M., Haney, M., Levin, F. R., Foltin, R. W., & Fischman, M. W. (1998). Mood and performance changes in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Acute effects of alprazolam. Neuropsychopharmacology, 19(6), 499–516. doi: 10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00064-5.Google Scholar
  32. Facchinetti, F., Fioroni, L., Martignoni, E., Sances, G., Costa, A., & Genazzani, A. R. (1994). Changes of opioid modulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with severe premenstrual syndrome. Psychosomatic Medicine, 56(5), 418–422.Google Scholar
  33. Feuerstein, M., & Shaw, W. S. (2002). Measurement properties of the calendar of premenstrual experience in patients with premenstrual syndrome. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 47(4), 279–289.Google Scholar
  34. Fink, G., Sumner, B. E., McQueen, J. K., Wilson, H., & Rosie, R. (1998). Sex steroid control of mood, mental state and memory. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, 25(10), 764–775.Google Scholar
  35. Ford, O., Lethaby, A., Roberts, H., & Mol, B. W. J. (2012). Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online), 3, CD003415. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003415.pub4.Google Scholar
  36. Freeman, E. W. (2004). Luteal phase administration of agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. CNS Drugs, 18(7), 453–468.Google Scholar
  37. Freeman, E. W., Halberstadt, S. M., Rickels, K., Legler, J. M., Lin, H., & Sammel, M. D. (2011). Core symptoms that discriminate premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Women's Health (2002), 20(1), 29–35. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2161.Google Scholar
  38. Freeman, E. W, Halbreich, U., Grubb, G. S., Rapkin, A. J., Skouby, S. O., Smith, L., … Constantine, G. D. (2012). An overview of four studies of a continuous oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel 90 mcg/ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) on premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome. Contraception, 85(5), 437–445. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.09.010
  39. Freeman, E. W., Rickels, K., Schweizer, E., & Ting, T. (1995). Relationships between age and symptom severity among women seeking medical treatment for premenstrual symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 25(2), 309–315.Google Scholar
  40. Freeman, E. W., Rickels, K., Sondheimer, S. J., & Polansky, M. (1995). A double-blind trial of oral progesterone, alprazolam, and placebo in treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 274(1), 51–57.Google Scholar
  41. Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Liu, L., Gracia, C. R., Nelson, D. B., & Hollander, L. (2004). Hormones and menopausal status as predictors of depression in women in transition to menopause. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 62–70. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.61.1.62.Google Scholar
  42. Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Rinaudo, P. J., & Sheng, L. (2004). Premenstrual syndrome as a predictor of menopausal symptoms. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103(5 Pt 1), 960–966. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000124804.81095.7f.Google Scholar
  43. Freeman, E. W., Sondheimer, S. J., Sammel, M. D., Ferdousi, T., & Lin, H. (2005). A preliminary study of luteal phase versus symptom-onset dosing with escitalopram for premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(6), 769–773.Google Scholar
  44. Gallo, M. A., & Smith, S. S. (1993). Progesterone withdrawal decreases latency to and increases duration of electrified prod burial: A possible rat model of PMS anxiety. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 46(4), 897–904.Google Scholar
  45. Gaskins, A. J., Wilchesky, M., Mumford, S. L., Whitcomb, B. W., Browne, R. W., Wactawski-Wende, J., … Schisterman, E. F. (2012). Endogenous reproductive hormones and C-reactive protein across the menstrual cycle: The BioCycle Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 175(5), 423–431. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr343
  46. Gingnell, M., Comasco, E., Oreland, L., Fredrikson, M., & Sundström-Poromaa, I. (2010). Neuroticism-related personality traits are related to symptom severity in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder and to the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism 5-HTTPLPR. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 13(5), 417–423. doi: 10.1007/s00737-010-0164-4.Google Scholar
  47. Girdler, S. S., Leserman, J., Bunevicius, R., Klatzkin, R., Pedersen, C. A., & Light, K. C. (2007). Persistent alterations in biological profiles in women with abuse histories: Influence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Health Psychology, 26(2), 201–213. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.26.2.201.Google Scholar
  48. Girdler, S. S., Pedersen, C. A., Straneva, P. A., Leserman, J., Stanwyck, C. L., Benjamin, S., & Light, K. C. (1998). Dysregulation of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to stress in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychiatry Research, 81(2), 163–178. doi: 10.1016/S0165-1781(98)00074-2
  49. Girdler, S. S., Straneva, P. A., Light, K. C., Pedersen, C. A., & Morrow, A. L. (2001). Allopregnanolone levels and reactivity to mental stress in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 49(9), 788–797.Google Scholar
  50. Golding, J. M., Taylor, D. L., Menard, L., & King, M. J. (2000). Prevalence of sexual abuse history in a sample of women seeking treatment for premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 21(2), 69–80.Google Scholar
  51. Graham, C. A., & Sherwin, B. B. (1992). A prospective treatment study of premenstrual symptoms using a triphasic oral contraceptive. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36(3), 257–266.Google Scholar
  52. Griffin, L. D., & Mellon, S. H. (1999). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors directly alter activity of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(23), 13512–13517.Google Scholar
  53. Gulinello, M., Gong, Q. H., & Smith, S. S. (2002). Progesterone withdrawal increases the alpha4 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in male rats in association with anxiety and altered pharmacology—a comparison with female rats. Neuropharmacology, 43(4), 701–714.Google Scholar
  54. Gulinello, M., Orman, R., & Smith, S. S. (2003). Sex differences in anxiety, sensorimotor gating and expression of the alpha4 subunit of the GABAA receptor in the amygdala after progesterone withdrawal. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(3), 641–648.Google Scholar
  55. Haggerty, C. L., Ness, R. B., Kelsey, S., & Waterer, G. W. (2003). The impact of estrogen and progesterone on asthma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 90(3), 284–291; quiz 291–293, 347. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61794-2
  56. Halbreich, U. (2004). The diagnosis of premenstrual syndromes and premenstrual dysphoric disorder—clinical procedures and research perspectives. Gynecological Endocrinology, 19(6), 320–334.Google Scholar
  57. Halbreich, U. (2008). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and initial oral contraceptives for the treatment of PMDD: Effective but not enough. CNS Spectrums, 13(7), 566–572.Google Scholar
  58. Halbreich, U., Borenstein, J., Pearlstein, T., & Kahn, L. S. (2003). The prevalence, impairment, impact, and burden of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28(Suppl 3), 1–23.Google Scholar
  59. Haley, C. L., Sung, S. C., Rush, A. J., Trivedi, M. H., Wisniewski, S. R., Luther, J. F., & Kornstein, S. G. (2013). The clinical relevance of self-reported premenstrual worsening of depressive symptoms in the management of depressed outpatients: a STAR*D report. Journal of Women’s Health (2002), 22(3), 219–229. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3186
  60. Hamaideh, S. H., Al-Ashram, S. A., & Al-Modallal, H. (2013). Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among Jordanian women. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. doi: 10.1111/jpm.12047.Google Scholar
  61. Hartlage, S. A., Brandenburg, D. L., & Kravitz, H. M. (2004). Premenstrual exacerbation of depressive disorders in a community-based sample in the United States. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66(5), 698–706. doi: 10.1097/01.psy.0000138131.92408.b9.Google Scholar
  62. Hartlage, S. A., Freels, S., Gotman, N., & Yonkers, K. (2012). Criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Secondary analyses of relevant data sets. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(3), 300–305. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1368.Google Scholar
  63. Heinemann, L. A. J., Minh, T. D., Heinemann, K., Lindemann, M., & Filonenko, A. (2012). Intercountry assessment of the impact of severe premenstrual disorders on work and daily activities. Health Care for Women International, 33(2), 109–124. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2011.610530.Google Scholar
  64. Hong, J., Park, S., Wang, H.-R., Chang, S., Sohn, J., Jeon, H., … Cho, M. (n.d.). Prevalence, correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a nationwide sample of Korean women. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1–9. doi: 10.1007/s00127-012-0509-6
  65. Hsiao, M.-C., Hsiao, C.-C., & Liu, C.-Y. (2004). Premenstrual symptoms and premenstrual exacerbation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 58(2), 186–190.Google Scholar
  66. Hsiao, C.-C., Liu, C.-Y., & Hsiao, M.-C. (2004). No correlation of depression and anxiety to plasma estrogen and progesterone levels in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 58(6), 593–599. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2004.01308.x.Google Scholar
  67. Huo, L., Straub, R. E., Roca, C., Schmidt, P. J., Shi, K., Vakkalanka, R., … Rubinow, D. R. (2007). Risk for premenstrual dysphoric disorder is associated with genetic variation in ESR1, the estrogen receptor alpha gene. Biological Psychiatry, 62(8), 925–933. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.12.019
  68. Jahanfar, S., Lye, M.-S., & Krishnarajah, I. S. (2011). The heritability of premenstrual syndrome. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 14(5), 433–436. doi: 10.1375/twin.14.5.433.Google Scholar
  69. Jane, Z.-Y., Chang, C.-C., Lin, H.-K., Liu, Y.-C., & Chen, W.-L. (2011). The association between the exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome and menstrual symptoms in young Taiwanese women. Gastroenterology Nursing, 34(4), 277–286. doi: 10.1097/SGA.0b013e3182248708.Google Scholar
  70. Jeong, H.-G., Ham, B.-J., Yeo, H. B., Jung, I.-K., & Joe, S.-H. (2012). Gray matter abnormalities in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: An optimized voxel-based morphometry. Journal of Affective Disorders, 140(3), 260–267. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.010.Google Scholar
  71. Kane, S. V., Sable, K., & Hanauer, S. B. (1998). The menstrual cycle and its effect on inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: A prevalence study. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 93(10), 1867–1872. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.1998.540_i.x.Google Scholar
  72. Kask, K., Gulinello, M., Bäckström, T., Geyer, M. A., & Sundström-Poromaa, I. (2008). Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder have increased startle response across both cycle phases and lower levels of prepulse inhibition during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(9), 2283–2290. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301599.Google Scholar
  73. Kendler, K. S., Karkowski, L. M., Corey, L. A., & Neale, M. C. (1998). Longitudinal population-based twin study of retrospectively reported premenstrual symptoms and lifetime major depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(9), 1234–1240.Google Scholar
  74. Kirschbaum, C., Kudielka, B. M., Gaab, J., Schommer, N. C., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1999). Impact of gender, menstrual cycle phase, and oral contraceptives on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(2), 154–162.Google Scholar
  75. Kleinstäuber, M., Witthöft, M., & Hiller, W. (2012). Cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological interventions for premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19(3), 308–319. doi: 10.1007/s10880-012-9299-y.Google Scholar
  76. Koci, A., & Strickland, O. (2007). Relationship of adolescent physical and sexual abuse to perimenstrual symptoms (PMS) in adulthood. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28(1), 75–87. doi: 10.1080/01612840600996281.Google Scholar
  77. Kornstein, S. G., Harvey, A. T., Rush, A. J., Wisniewski, S. R., Trivedi, M. H., Svikis, D. S., … Harley, R. (2005). Self-reported premenstrual exacerbation of depressive symptoms in patients seeking treatment for major depression. Psychological Medicine, 35(5), 683–692.Google Scholar
  78. Kornstein, S. G., Pearlstein, T. B., Fayyad, R., Farfel, G. M., & Gillespie, J. A. (2006). Low-dose sertraline in the treatment of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome: Efficacy of 3 dosing strategies. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(10), 1624–1632.Google Scholar
  79. Kuczmierczyk, A. R., Labrum, A. H., & Johnson, C. C. (1992). Perception of family and work environments in women with premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36(8), 787–795.Google Scholar
  80. Landén, M., & Eriksson, E. (2003). How does premenstrual dysphoric disorder relate to depression and anxiety disorders? Depression and Anxiety, 17(3), 122–129. doi: 10.1002/da.10089.Google Scholar
  81. Landén, M., Nissbrandt, H., Allgulander, C., Sörvik, K., Ysander, C., & Eriksson, E. (2007). Placebo-controlled trial comparing intermittent and continuous paroxetine in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32(1), 153–161. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301216.Google Scholar
  82. Landén, M., & Thase, M. E. (2006). A model to explain the therapeutic effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors: The role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 39(1), 147–166.Google Scholar
  83. Lee, E. E., Nieman, L. K., Martinez, P. E., Harsh, V. L., Rubinow, D. R., & Schmidt, P. J. (2012). ACTH and cortisol response to Dex/CRH testing in women with and without premenstrual dysphoria during GnRH agonist-induced hypogonadism and ovarian steroid replacement. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97(6), 1887–1896. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-3451.Google Scholar
  84. Li, Y., Pehrson, A. L., Budac, D. P., Sánchez, C., & Gulinello, M. (2012). A rodent model of premenstrual dysphoria: Progesterone withdrawal induces depression-like behavior that is differentially sensitive to classes of antidepressants. Behavioural Brain Research, 234(2), 238–247. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.06.034.Google Scholar
  85. Lokuge, S., Frey, B. N., Foster, J. A., Soares, C. N., & Steiner, M. (2010). The rapid effects of estrogen: A mini-review. Behavioural Pharmacology, 21(5–6), 465–472. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0b013e32833da5c3.Google Scholar
  86. Lopez, L. M., Kaptein, A. A., & Helmerhorst, F. M. (2012). Oral contraceptives containing drospirenone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online), 2, CD006586. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006586.pub4.Google Scholar
  87. Lurie, S., & Borenstein, R. (1990). The premenstrual syndrome. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 45(4), 220–228.Google Scholar
  88. Lustyk, M. K. B., Gerrish, W. G., Shaver, S., & Keys, S. L. (2009). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A systematic review. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 12(2), 85–96. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0052-y.Google Scholar
  89. Lustyk, M. K. B., Widman, L., & Becker Lde, L. (2007). Abuse history and premenstrual symptomatology: Assessing the mediating role of perceived stress. Women & Health, 46(4), 61–80.Google Scholar
  90. Magnay, J. L., El-Shourbagy, M., Fryer, A. A., O’Brien, S., & Ismail, K. M. K. (2010). Analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter rs25531 polymorphism in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 203(2), 181.e1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.02.043
  91. Magnay, J. L., Ismail, K. M. K., Chapman, G., Cioni, L., Jones, P. W., & O’Brien, S. (2006). Serotonin transporter, tryptophan hydroxylase, and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 195(5), 1254–1259. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.087.Google Scholar
  92. Majewska, M. D., Harrison, N. L., Schwartz, R. D., Barker, J. L., & Paul, S. M. (1986). Steroid hormone metabolites are barbiturate-like modulators of the GABA receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 232(4753), 1004–1007.Google Scholar
  93. Markou, E., Boura, E., Tsalikis, L., Deligianidis, A., & Konstantinidis, A. (2011). The influence of sex hormones on proinflammatory cytokines in gingiva of periodontally healthy premenopausal women. Journal of Periodontal Research, 46(5), 528–532. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2011.01369.x.Google Scholar
  94. Maswood, S., Truitt, W., Hotema, M., Caldarola-Pastuszka, M., & Uphouse, L. (1999). Estrous cycle modulation of extracellular serotonin in mediobasal hypothalamus: Role of the serotonin transporter and terminal autoreceptors. Brain Research, 831(1–2), 146–154.Google Scholar
  95. McQueen, J. K., Wilson, H., & Fink, G. (1997). Estradiol-17 beta increases serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA levels and the density of SERT-binding sites in female rat brain. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research, 45(1), 13–23.Google Scholar
  96. Menkes, D. B., Coates, D. C., & Fawcett, J. P. (1994). Acute tryptophan depletion aggravates premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Affective Disorders, 32(1), 37–44.Google Scholar
  97. Morse, C. A., Dudley, E., Guthrie, J., & Dennerstein, L. (1998). Relationships between premenstrual complaints and perimenopausal experiences. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 19(4), 182–191.Google Scholar
  98. Nillni, Y. I., Toufexis, D. J., & Rohan, K. J. (2011). Anxiety sensitivity, the menstrual cycle, and panic disorder: A putative neuroendocrine and psychological interaction. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(7), 1183–1191. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.07.006.Google Scholar
  99. Northoff, H., Symons, S., Zieker, D., Schaible, E. V., Schäfer, K., Thoma, S., … Fehrenbach, E. (2008). Gender- and menstrual phase dependent regulation of inflammatory gene expression in response to aerobic exercise. Exercise Immunology Review, 14, 86–103.Google Scholar
  100. O’Brien, P. M. S., Bäckström, T., Brown, C., Dennerstein, L., Endicott, J., Epperson, C. N., … Yonkers, K. (2011). Towards a consensus on diagnostic criteria, measurement and trial design of the premenstrual disorders: The ISPMD Montreal consensus. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 14(1), 13–21. doi: 10.1007/s00737-010-0201-3
  101. O’Brien, S. M., Fitzgerald, P., Scully, P., Landers, A., Scott, L. V., & Dinan, T. G. (2007). Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations. Neuroimmunomodulation, 14(2), 84–90. doi: 10.1159/000107423.Google Scholar
  102. Paddison, P. L., Gise, L. H., Lebovits, A., Strain, J. J., Cirasole, D. M., & Levine, J. P. (1990). Sexual abuse and premenstrual syndrome: Comparison between a lower and higher socioeconomic group. Psychosomatics, 31(3), 265–272. doi: 10.1016/S0033-3182(90)72162-7.Google Scholar
  103. Perkonigg, A., Yonkers, K. A., Pfister, H., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2004). Risk factors for premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a community sample of young women: The role of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(10), 1314–1322.Google Scholar
  104. Pico-Alfonso, M. A., Mastorci, F., Ceresini, G., Ceda, G. P., Manghi, M., Pino, O., … Sgoifo, A. (2007). Acute psychosocial challenge and cardiac autonomic response in women: The role of estrogens, corticosteroids, and behavioral coping styles. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(5), 451–463. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.02.009
  105. Pilver, C. E., Levy, B. R., Libby, D. J., & Desai, R. A. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma characteristics are correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 14(5), 383–393. doi: 10.1007/s00737-011-0232-4.Google Scholar
  106. Potter, J., Bouyer, J., Trussell, J., & Moreau, C. (2009). Premenstrual syndrome prevalence and fluctuation over time: Results from a French population-based survey. Journal of Women's Health (2002), 18(1), 31–39. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2008.0932.Google Scholar
  107. Protopopescu, X., Tuescher, O., Pan, H., Epstein, J., Root, J., Chang, L., … Silbersweig, D. (2008). Toward a functional neuroanatomy of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108(1–2), 87–94. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.09.015
  108. Puder, J. J., Blum, C. A., Mueller, B., De Geyter, C., Dye, L., & Keller, U. (2006). Menstrual cycle symptoms are associated with changes in low-grade inflammation. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 36(1), 58–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2006.01591.x.Google Scholar
  109. Rabin, D. S., Schmidt, P. J., Campbell, G., Gold, P. W., Jensvold, M., Rubinow, D. R., & Chrousos, G. P. (1990). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in patients with the premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 71(5), 1158–1162.Google Scholar
  110. Raison, C. L., Capuron, L., & Miller, A. H. (2006). Cytokines sing the blues: Inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression. Trends in Immunology, 27(1), 24–31. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2005.11.006.Google Scholar
  111. Rapkin, A. J., Berman, S. M., Mandelkern, M. A., Silverman, D. H. S., Morgan, M., & London, E. D. (2011). Neuroimaging evidence of cerebellar involvement in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 69(4), 374–380. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.029.Google Scholar
  112. Rapkin, A. J., Edelmuth, E., Chang, L. C., Reading, A. E., McGuire, M. T., & Su, T. P. (1987). Whole-blood serotonin in premenstrual syndrome. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 70(4), 533–537.Google Scholar
  113. Rasgon, N., McGuire, M., Tanavoli, S., Fairbanks, L., & Rapkin, A. (2000). Neuroendocrine response to an intravenous L-tryptophan challenge in women with premenstrual syndrome. Fertility and Sterility, 73(1), 144–149.Google Scholar
  114. Ravindran, L. N., Woods, S.-A., Steiner, M., & Ravindran, A. V. (2007). Symptom-onset dosing with citalopram in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD): A case series. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 10(3), 125–127. doi: 10.1007/s00737-007-0181-0.Google Scholar
  115. Reame, N. E., Marshall, J. C., & Kelch, R. P. (1992). Pulsatile LH secretion in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS): Evidence for normal neuroregulation of the menstrual cycle. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17(2–3), 205–213.Google Scholar
  116. Reed, S. C., Levin, F. R., & Evans, S. M. (2008). Changes in mood, cognitive performance, and appetite in the late luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle in women with and without PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder). Hormones and Behavior, 54(1), 185–193. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.02.018.Google Scholar
  117. Rehavi, M., Goldin, M., Roz, N., & Weizman, A. (1998). Regulation of rat brain vesicular monoamine transporter by chronic treatment with ovarian hormones. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research, 57(1), 31–37.Google Scholar
  118. Rohleder, N., Wolf, J. M., Piel, M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2003). Impact of oral contraceptive use on glucocorticoid sensitivity of pro-inflammatory cytokine production after psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28(3), 261–273. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00019-7.Google Scholar
  119. Rubinow, D. R., Hoban, M. C., Grover, G. N., Galloway, D. S., Roy-Byrne, P., Andersen, R., & Merriam, G. R. (1988). Changes in plasma hormones across the menstrual cycle in patients with menstrually related mood disorder and in control subjects. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 158(1), 5–11.Google Scholar
  120. Sacco, S., Ricci, S., Degan, D., & Carolei, A. (2012). Migraine in women: The role of hormones and their impact on vascular diseases. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 13(3), 177–189. doi: 10.1007/s10194-012-0424-y.Google Scholar
  121. Schatz, D. B., Hsiao, M.-C., & Liu, C.-Y. (2012). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder in East Asia: A review of the literature. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 43(4), 365–380.Google Scholar
  122. Schmidt, P. J., Grover, G. N., Hoban, M. C., & Rubinow, D. R. (1990). State-dependent alterations in the perception of life events in menstrual-related mood disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(2), 230–234.Google Scholar
  123. Schmidt, P. J., Nieman, L. K., Danaceau, M. A., Adams, L. F., & Rubinow, D. R. (1998). Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome. The New England Journal of Medicine, 338(4), 209–216. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199801223380401.Google Scholar
  124. Schneider, T., & Popik, P. (2009). An animal model of premenstrual dysphoric disorder sensitive to antidepressants. Current Protocols in Neuroscience/Editorial Board, Jacqueline N. Crawley … [et al.], Chapter 9, Unit 9.31. doi: 10.1002/0471142301.ns0931s46
  125. Segebladh, B., Bannbers, E., Kask, K., Nyberg, S., Bixo, M., Heimer, G., & Sundström-Poromaa, I. (2011). Prevalence of violence exposure in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder in comparison with other gynecological patients and asymptomatic controls. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 90(7), 746–752. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01151.x
  126. Segebladh, B., Bannbers, E., Moby, L., Nyberg, S., Bixo, M., Bäckström, T., & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2013). Allopregnanolone serum concentrations and diurnal cortisol secretion in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0327-1
  127. Shah, N. R., Jones, J. B., Aperi, J., Shemtov, R., Karne, A., & Borenstein, J. (2008). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A meta-analysis. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 111(5), 1175–1182. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31816fd73b.Google Scholar
  128. Sherwin, B. B., & Suranyi-Cadotte, B. E. (1990). Up-regulatory effect of estrogen on platelet 3H-imipramine binding sites in surgically menopausal women. Biological Psychiatry, 28(4), 339–348.Google Scholar
  129. Shourie, V., Dwarakanath, C. D., Prashanth, G. V., Alampalli, R. V., Padmanabhan, S., & Bali, S. (2012). The effect of menstrual cycle on periodontal health—a clinical and microbiological study. Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry, 10(2), 185–192.Google Scholar
  130. Smith, Adams, Schmidt, Rubinow, & Wassermann (2003). Abnormal luteal phase excitability of the motor cortex in women with premenstrual syndrome. Biol Psychiatry. 54(7):757–62.Google Scholar
  131. Smith, M., Poschman, K., Cavaleri, M., Howell, H., & Yonkers, K. (2006). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of low-income pregnant women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(5), 881–884.Google Scholar
  132. Steinberg, E. M., Cardoso, G. M. P., Martinez, P. E., Rubinow, D. R., & Schmidt, P. J. (2012). Rapid response to fluoxetine in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 29(6), 531–540. doi: 10.1002/da.21959.Google Scholar
  133. Stone, S. E., Mazmanian, D., Oinonen, K. A., & Sharma, V. (2013). Past reproductive events as predictors of physical symptom severity during the menopausal transition. Menopause (New York, N.Y.). doi: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31827e18b8.Google Scholar
  134. Strine, T. W., Chapman, D. P., & Ahluwalia, I. B. (2005). Menstrual-related problems and psychological distress among women in the United States. Journal of Women's Health (2002), 14(4), 316–323. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2005.14.316.Google Scholar
  135. Sugawara, M., Toda, M. A., Shima, S., Mukai, T., Sakakura, K., & Kitamura, T. (1997). Premenstrual mood changes and maternal mental health in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53(3), 225–232.Google Scholar
  136. Sundström, I., Ashbrook, D., & Bäckström, T. (1997). Reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity in patients with premenstrual syndrome: A pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22(1), 25–38.Google Scholar
  137. Sundström, I., & Bäckström, T. (1998a). Patients with premenstrual syndrome have decreased saccadic eye velocity compared to control subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 44(8), 755–764.Google Scholar
  138. Sundström, I., & Bäckström, T. (1998b). Citalopram increases pregnanolone sensitivity in patients with premenstrual syndrome: An open trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23(1), 73–88.Google Scholar
  139. Sundström, I., Nyberg, S., & Bäckström, T. (1997). Patients with premenstrual syndrome have reduced sensitivity to midazolam compared to control subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 17(6), 370–381. doi: 10.1016/S0893-133X(97)00086-9.Google Scholar
  140. Sylvén, S. M., Ekselius, L., Sundström-Poromaa, I., & Skalkidou, A. (2013). Premenstrual syndrome and dysphoric disorder as risk factors for postpartum depression. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 92(2), 178–184. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12041.Google Scholar
  141. Takeda, T., Tasaka, K., Sakata, M., & Murata, Y. (2006). Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Japanese women. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9(4), 209–212. doi: 10.1007/s00737-006-0137-9.Google Scholar
  142. Thys-Jacobs, S., McMahon, D., & Bilezikian, J. P. (2008). Differences in free estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in women with and without premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(1), 96–102. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-1726.Google Scholar
  143. Timby, E., Balgård, M., Nyberg, S., Spigset, O., Andersson, A., Porankiewicz-Asplund, J., … Poromaa, I. S. (2006). Pharmacokinetic and behavioral effects of allopregnanolone in healthy women. Psychopharmacology, 186(3), 414–424. doi: 10.1007/s00213-005-0148-7
  144. Treloar, S. A., Heath, A. C., & Martin, N. G. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on premenstrual symptoms in an Australian twin sample. Psychological Medicine, 32(1), 25–38.Google Scholar
  145. Tschudin, S., Bertea, P. C., & Zemp, E. (2010). Prevalence and predictors of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a population-based sample. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 13(6), 485–494. doi: 10.1007/s00737-010-0165-3.Google Scholar
  146. Turkmen, S., Backstrom, T., Wahlstrom, G., Andreen, L., & Johansson, I.-M. (2011). Tolerance to allopregnanolone with focus on the GABA-A receptor. British Journal of Pharmacology, 162(2), 311–327. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01059.x.Google Scholar
  147. van den Akker, O. B., Stein, G. S., Neale, M. C., & Murray, R. M. (1987). Genetic and environmental variation in menstrual cycle: Histories of two British twin samples. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae, 36(4), 541–548.Google Scholar
  148. van Veen, J. F., Jonker, B. W., van Vliet, I. M., & Zitman, F. G. (2009). The effects of female reproductive hormones in generalized social anxiety disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 39(3), 283–295.Google Scholar
  149. Wander, K., Brindle, E., & O’Connor, K. A. (2008). C-reactive protein across the menstrual cycle. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 136(2), 138–146. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20785.Google Scholar
  150. Wang, M., Seippel, L., Purdy, R. H., & Bãckström, T. (1996). Relationship between symptom severity and steroid variation in women with premenstrual syndrome: Study on serum pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate, 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 81(3), 1076–1082.Google Scholar
  151. Watson, C. S., Alyea, R. A., Cunningham, K. A., & Jeng, Y.-J. (2010). Estrogens of multiple classes and their role in mental health disease mechanisms. International Journal of Women’s Health, 2, 153–166.Google Scholar
  152. WHO, W. H. O. (2004). The ICD-1 classification of mental, behavioral and developmental disorders (2nd ed., 10th revision). Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  153. Wihlbäck, A.-C., Sundström Poromaa, I., Bixo, M., Allard, P., Mjörndal, T., & Spigset, O. (2004). Influence of menstrual cycle on platelet serotonin uptake site and serotonin2A receptor binding. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(6), 757–766. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4530(03)00120-3.Google Scholar
  154. Wittchen, H. U., Becker, E., Lieb, R., & Krause, P. (2002). Prevalence, incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community. Psychological Medicine, 32(1), 119–132.Google Scholar
  155. Wium-Andersen, M. K., Ørsted, D. D., Nielsen, S. F., & Nordestgaard, B. G. (2013). Elevated C-reactive protein levels, psychological distress, and depression in 73, 131 individuals. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(2), 176–184. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamapsychiatry.102.Google Scholar
  156. Wyatt, K. M., Dimmock, P. W., Ismail, K. M. K., Jones, P. W., & O’Brien, P. M. S. (2004). The effectiveness of GnRHa with and without “add-back” therapy in treating premenstrual syndrome: A meta analysis. BJOG, 111(6), 585–593. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00135.x.Google Scholar
  157. Wyatt, K., Dimmock, P., Jones, P., Obhrai, M., & O’Brien, S. (2001). Efficacy of progesterone and progestogens in management of premenstrual syndrome: Systematic review. BMJ (Clinical Research ed.), 323(7316), 776–780.Google Scholar
  158. Yamamoto, K., Okazaki, A., Sakamoto, Y., & Funatsu, M. (2009). The relationship between premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, irregular menstrual cycles, and psychosocial stress among Japanese college students. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 28(3), 129–136.Google Scholar
  159. Yang, M., Wallenstein, G., Hagan, M., Guo, A., Chang, J., & Kornstein, S. (2008). Burden of premenstrual dysphoric disorder on health-related quality of life. Journal of Women’s Health (2002), 17(1), 113–121. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2007.0417.Google Scholar
  160. Yonkers, K. A. (1997). Anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders: How are they related to premenstrual disorders? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58(Suppl. 3), 62–67; discussion 68–69.Google Scholar
  161. Yonkers, K. A., Holthausen, G. A., Poschman, K., & Howell, H. B. (2006). Symptom-onset treatment for women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26(2), 198–202. doi: 10.1097/01.jcp.0000203197.03829.ae.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Penn Center for Women’s Behavioral WellnessPerelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations