Menstruation and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Its Impact on Mood

  • C. Neill Epperson
  • Liisa Hantsoo


In the premenstruum, women may experience physical or affective symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, or bloating. Such symptoms occur on a continuum, with approximately 3–8 % of women experiencing symptoms severe enough to impact function in daily activities. This severe cluster of symptoms is classified as Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Researchers continue to unravel the biopsychosocial contributors to premenstrual symptoms, including stress and hormonal changes. Women with premenstrual symptoms likely have altered central nervous system sensitivity to normal hormonal fluctuations. In particular, altered GABAergic response to neurosteroid metabolites may be key in the etiology of PMDD. This chapter includes a brief overview of the menstrual cycle, PMDD diagnosis and pathophysiology, and treatment approaches.


Luteal Phase Follicular Phase Postpartum Depression Premenstrual Symptom Trier Social Stress Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Penn Center for Women’s Behavioral WellnessPerelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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