Mechanism and Structures: Humanoids and Quadrupeds

  • Darwin G. Caldwell
  • Nikos Tsagarakis
  • Claudio Semini


The world, both natural and man-made, is a complex, unstructured, cluttered and dynamically changing environment through which humans and animals move with consummate ease, adapting to changing environments, terrains and challenges. Wheeled robots are increasingly able to work in some of these terrains, particularly those that have naturally or artificially smoothed surfaces, but there are, and will continue to be, many scenarios where only human-/animal-like levels of agility, compliance, dexterity, robustness, reliability and movement/locomotion will be effective. These domains will create new opportunities for legged locomotion (both bipedal and quadrupedal), but these new challenges will demand increased functionality in the legged robots, moving from the current domain dominated by simple walking and balance maintenance, to address key whole-body interaction issues during physical contact with humans, other robots and the environment (Fig. 5.1). This will require the development of robots that are able to exploit:


Peak Torque Quadruped Robot Legged Robot Series Elastic Element Gait Transition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darwin G. Caldwell
    • 1
  • Nikos Tsagarakis
    • 1
  • Claudio Semini
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Research LaboratoryIstituto Italiano di TecnologiaGenovaItaly

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