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Bone-Seeking Radiopharmaceuticals as Targeted Agents of Osteosarcoma: Samarium-153-EDTMP and Radium-223

  • Peter M. Anderson
  • Vivek Subbiah
  • Eric Rohren
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (volume 804)

Abstract

Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

Keywords

Osteosarcoma Internal radiotherapy Radium-223 Samarium-153 Alpha particle Beta particle Bone scan for screening Double strand DNA breaks Resistance is futile Radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Peter M. Anderson acknowledges Greg Wiseman and Oyvind Bruland for their advice and sharing ideas during in the development of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals for osteosarcoma and Norman Jaffe for his mentorship when working with metastatic osteosarcoma patients. Research has been supported by the Shannon Wilkes Osteosarcoma fund, and Lauren Edwards Behr sarcoma research fund, Sarah’s Garden of Hope. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is supported by Cancer Center Support Grant No. CA 016672. Dr. Anderson was supported by the Curtis Distinguished Professorship and is currently partially supported by Levine Cancer Institute.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter M. Anderson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vivek Subbiah
    • 3
  • Eric Rohren
    • 3
  1. 1.Levine Children’s HospitalCharlotteUSA
  2. 2.Carolinas Healthcare SystemLevine Children’s Hospital and Levine Cancer InstituteCharlotteUSA
  3. 3.MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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