Biostratigraphic Significance of Lower Cisuralian Palynoflora from Apillapampa, Bolivia
Recent stratigraphic and palynological data from marine and transitional rocks of the Copacabana Formation at Apillapampa in central Bolivia refine the age of Cisuralian palynomorphs in South America. Samples interbedded with volcanic ashes yielded palynomorph taxa arranged into two informal palynoassemblages: the lower assemblage Vittatina costabilis (Vc) occurs in one sample at the base of the Copacabana Formation, and the upper Lueckisporites virkkiae (Lv) assemblage is found in overlying marine and coal-bearing transitional intervals. Ages were also independently refined by a modern review of microfossil (conodonts and fusulinids) and five U–Pb radiometric ages (ID–TIMS of zircon-bearing interbedded tuffs), which confirm that the Copacabana Formation at this location is Asselian and Sakmarian in age. Lueckisporites virkkiae and other palynomorphs are key species of palynozones utilized in South American and global Permian biostratigraphic reconstructions. Hence, a thorough global comparison of these palynofloras and correlations is made in this study, considering the first appearances of mainly cosmopolitan diagnostic taxa. Correlations are established with many similar Permian palynofloras, some also constrained by radiometric data, in South America (Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina) and elsewhere (Africa, Australia, Oman, and Saudi Arabia).
KeywordsLueckisporites virkkiae Palynostratigraphy Correlations Cisuralian Copacabana Formation Bolivia
Financial support is acknowledged from CGL2006-07376/BTE (2007–2009, E.D.M., Spain), CONICET PIP5518 (2005–2007), PIP 0305 (2011–2013) and UBACYT X428 (2008–2010, M.D.P., Argentina), CNPq 401769/2010-0 and 480385/2010-6 (P.A.S., Brazil), CNPq 305687/2010-7 and FAPERGS PqG 1015846 (R.I., Brazil).
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