Contextualizing Time in Linguistic Discourse: Cues to Individuate and to Order Events

  • Samir Karmakar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8284)


Temporal description of a discourse is a consequence of the interactions holding among different contextualities. These interactions are governed by different contextualization cues of both explicit and implicit types. The explicit contextualization cues are tense, grammatical aspect, connectives etc., whereas the implicit contextualization cues are expectancies and dependencies emerging from the concept internal structures of open class expressions in a description. In this paper, an attempt would be made to understand how some of these cues play a crucial role in construing the sense of temporality encoded in a discourse, with an example drawn from Bangla.


landmark affordances foreground background temporality 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bach, K., Harnish, R.N.: Linguistic communication and speech acts. MIT Press, MA (1979)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Binnick, R.I.: Time and the verb: A Guide to Tense and Aspect. Oxford University Press, New York (1991)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown, G., Yule, G.: Discourse Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cresswell, M.: Static Semantics for Dynamic Discourse. Linguistics and Philosophy 25, 545–571 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dowty, D.: The effects of Aspectual Class on the Temporal Structure of Discourse: Semantics or Pragmatics? Linguistics and Philosophy 9, 37–61 (1986)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fleischman, S.: Evaluation in Narrative: The Present Tense in Medieval “Performed Stories”. Yale French Studies 70, 199–251 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grice, P.: Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard University Press, MA (1989)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grimes, J.E.: The thread of discourse. Mouton Publishers, The Hague (1975)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gumperz, J.: Discourse Strategies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hopper, P.J.: Some observations on the typology of focus and aspect in narrative language. Studies in Language 3(1), 37–64 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ifantidou, E.: Evidentials and Relevance. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jackendoff, R.: Semantic Structure. MIT Press, MA (1990)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Labov, W.: The transformation of experience in narrative syntax. In: Languages in the Inner City. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (1972)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Longacre, R.E.: The Grammar of Discourse. Plenum Press, NY (1983)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nerbonne, J.: Reference Time and Time in Narration. Linguistics and Philosophy 9, 83–95 (1986)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Östman, J.O., Virtanen, T.: Discourse Analysis. In: Handbook of Pragmatics Manual. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1995)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pustejovsky, J.: The Generative Lexicon. MIT Press, MA (1995)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., Svartvik, J.: A Comprehensive Grammar of The English Language. Longman, London (1985)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stalnaker, R.C.: Context and Content. Oxford University Press, NY (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samir Karmakar
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Languages and LinguisticsJadavpur UniversityIndia

Personalised recommendations