Menopause, Aging, Pelvic Organ Prolapse, and Dysfunction

  • Silvia Pisaneschi
  • Giulia Palla
  • Stefania Spina
  • Guja Bernacchi
  • Elena Cecchi
  • Silvia Di Bello
  • Magdalena Montt Guevara
  • Adrian Campelo
  • Tommaso SimonciniEmail author
Part of the ISGE Series book series (ISGE)


The female pelvic floor is a complex functional unit involved in many undertakings.

Pelvic floor dysfunction affects micturition, defecation, and sexual activity. Evolutionary adaptation, such as the acquisition of the upright standing position, walking, and delivery of fetuses with larger head diameters, made the fascial and the muscle support of the pelvic floor more vulnerable, predisposing women to pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence.

In addition, the female pelvic floor (differently than in males) undergoes a number of adaptive changes related to life and endocrine events. Many of these clinical manifestations become apparent after menopause and aging in women.

This chapter summarizes the key aspects of the pathophysiology and the clinics of the changes of the pelvic floor in women, in particular focusing on the association between endocrine changes of aging women and urinary problems and bowel dysfunctions.


Urinary Incontinence Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pelvic Floor Stress Urinary Incontinence Pelvic Organ Prolapse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia Pisaneschi
    • 1
  • Giulia Palla
    • 1
  • Stefania Spina
    • 1
  • Guja Bernacchi
    • 1
  • Elena Cecchi
    • 1
  • Silvia Di Bello
    • 1
  • Magdalena Montt Guevara
    • 1
  • Adrian Campelo
    • 1
  • Tommaso Simoncini
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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