Automatic Thematic Content Analysis: Finding Frames in News

  • Daan Odijk
  • Björn Burscher
  • Rens Vliegenthart
  • Maarten de Rijke
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8238)

Abstract

Framing in news is the way in which journalists depict an issue in terms of a ‘central organizing idea.’ Frames can be a perspective on an issue. We explore the automatic classification of four generic news frames: conflict, human interest, economic consequences, and morality. Complex characteristics of messages such as frames have been studied using thematic content analysis. Indicator questions are formulated, which are then manually coded by humans after reading a text and combined into a characterization of the message. We operationalize this as a classification task and, inspired by the way-of-working of media analysts, we propose a two-stage approach, where we first rate a news article using indicator questions for a frame and then use the outcomes to predict whether a frame is present. We approach human accuracy on almost all indicator questions and frames.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brewer, P.R.: Framing, value words, and citizens’ explanations of their issue opinions. Political Communication 19(3), 303–316 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cheng, A.-S., Fleischmann, K.R., Wang, P., Oard, D.W.: Advancing social science research by applying computational linguistics. In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fleischmann, K.R., Oard, D.W., Cheng, A.-S., Wang, P., Ishita, E.: Automatic classification of human values: Applying computational thinking to information ethics. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 46(1), 1–4 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galtung, J., Ruge, M.H.: The structure of foreign news. Journal of Peace Research 2(1), 64–90 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gamson, W.: Talking Politics. Cambridge University Press (1992)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gamson, W., Modigliani, A.: Media discourse and public opinion on nuclear power: A constructionist approach. American Journal of Sociology, 1–37 (1989)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iyengar, S.: Is anyone responsible?: How television frames political issues. University of Chicago Press (1991)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jijkoun, V., de Rijke, M., Weerkamp, W., Ackermans, P., Geleijnse, G.: Mining user experiences from online forums: an exploration. In: Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on Computational Linguistics in a World of Social Media, pp. 17–18. Association for Computational Linguistics (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joachims, T.: Optimizing search engines using clickthrough data. In: SIGKDD 2002, pp. 133–142. ACM (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krauth, W., Mézard, M.: Learning algorithms with optimal stability in neural networks. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General 20(11), L745 (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lasswell, H.D.: The structure and function of communication in society. The Communication of Ideas, 37 (1948)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lazer, D., Pentland, A.S., Adamic, L., Aral, S., Barabasi, A.L., Brewer, D., Christakis, N., Contractor, N., Fowler, J., Gutmann, M., et al.: Life in the network: the coming age of computational social science. Science 323(5915), 721 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meij, E., Bron, M., Hollink, L., Huurnink, B., de Rijke, M.: Learning semantic query suggestions. In: Bernstein, A., Karger, D.R., Heath, T., Feigenbaum, L., Maynard, D., Motta, E., Thirunarayan, K. (eds.) ISWC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5823, pp. 424–440. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meij, E., Weerkamp, W., de Rijke, M.: Adding semantics to microblog posts. In: WSDM 2012: Fifth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (February 2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meijer, M., Kleinnijenhuis, J.: ssue news and corporate reputation: Applying the theories of agenda setting and issue ownership in the field of business communication. Journal of Communication 56(3), 543–559 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Neuman, W.R., Just, M.R., Crigler, A.N.: Common knowledge: News and the construction of political meaning. University of Chicago Press (1992)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nisbet, M.C., Huge, M.: Attention cycles and frames in the plant biotechnology debate managing power and participation through the press/policy connection. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 11(2), 3–40 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palau, R.M., Moens, M.-F.: Argumentation mining: the detection, classification and structure of arguments in text. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, pp. 98–107. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pang, B., Lee, L.: Opinion mining and sentiment analysis. Foundations and Trends in Information Retrieval 2(1-2), 1–135 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roberts, C.: Text analysis for the social sciences: Methods for drawing statistical inferences from texts and transcripts. Lawrence Erlbaum, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ruigrok, N., Van Atteveldt, W.: Global angling with a local angle: How US, British, and Dutch newspapers frame global and local terrorist attacks. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 12(1), 68–90 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scheufele, D.A.: Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication 49(1), 103–122 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sculley, D.: Combined regression and ranking. In: SIGKDD 2010, pp. 979–988. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Semetko, H.A., Valkenburg, P.M.: Framing european politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication 50(2), 93–109 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shah, D.V., Watts, M.D., Domke, D., Fan, D.P.: News framing and cueing of issue regimes: Explaining clinton’s public approval in spite of scandal. Public Opinion Quarterly 66(3), 339–370 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Simon, A., Xenos, M.: Media framing and effective public deliberation. Political Communication 17(4), 363–376 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vliegenthart, R., Boomgaarden, H.G., Boumans, J.W.: Changes in political news coverage. Palgrave Macmillan (2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zillmann, D., Brosius, H.B.: Exemplification in communication. Hogrefe and Huber (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daan Odijk
    • 1
  • Björn Burscher
    • 2
  • Rens Vliegenthart
    • 2
  • Maarten de Rijke
    • 1
  1. 1.Intelligent System Labs Amsterdam (ISLA)University of AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Communication Science, Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR)University of AmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations