MRI-Based Skeletal Hand Movement Model

  • Georg Stillfried
  • Ulrich Hillenbrand
  • Marcus Settles
  • Patrick van der Smagt
Chapter
Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 95)

Abstract

The kinematics of the human hand is optimal with respect to force distribution during pinch as well as power grasp, reducing the tissue strain when exerting forces through opposing fingers and optimising contact faces. Quantifying this optimality is of key importance when constructing biomimetic robotic hands, but understanding the exact human finger motion is also an important asset in, e.g. tracking finger movement during manipulation. The goal of the method presented here is to determine the precise orientations and positions of the axes of rotation of the finger joints by using suitable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of a hand in various postures. The bones are segmented from the images, and their poses are estimated with respect to a reference posture. The axis orientations and positions are fitted numerically to match the measured bone motions. Eight joint types with varying degrees of freedom are investigated for each joint, and the joint type is selected by setting a limit on the rotational and translational mean discrepancy. The method results in hand models with differing accuracy and complexity, of which three examples, ranging from 22 to 33 DoF, are presented. The ranges of motion of the joints show some consensus and some disagreement with data from literature. One of the models is published as an implementation for the free OpenSim simulation environment. The mean discrepancies from a hand model built from MRI data are compared against a hand model built from optical motion capture data.

Keywords

Human hand Robot hand Hand kinematics MR imaging 3D object localisation 

Abbreviations

Bones

MC

Metacarpal bone

PP

Proximal phalanx

PM

Medial phalanx

PD

Distal phalanx

Joints

CMC

Carpometacarpal joint

IMC

Intermetacarpal joint

MCP

Metacarpophalangeal joint

PIP

Proximal interphalangeal joint

DIP

Distal interphalangeal joint

IP1

Thumb interphalangeal joint

Other

DoF

Degree(s) of freedom

LOOCV

Leave-one-out cross-validation

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MoCap

(Optical) motion capture

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Stillfried
    • 1
  • Ulrich Hillenbrand
    • 1
  • Marcus Settles
    • 2
  • Patrick van der Smagt
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Robotics and MechatronicsGerman Aerospace Center (DLR)WesslingGermany
  2. 2.Klinikum rechts der IsarUniversity hospital of TU MünchenMunichGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of InformaticsTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

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