Genetic and Developmental Origins of Food Preferences and Obesity Risk: The Role of Dopamine

Part of the Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions book series (RPEI, volume 12)


Fetal growth and development associates with poor lifetime health outcomes. Despite the strength of the epidemiological evidence, there is little research that describes the functional pathways linking fetal development to brain-based disorders and metabolic health. We used a longitudinal cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment; MAVAN) to study children of mothers recruited at mid-gestation and examine neurodevelopmental outcomes focusing on the association between birth weight and phenotypes associated with attention deficit disorder and obesity. These studies provide preliminary support for a ‘thrifty’ eating hypothesis that emphasizes the potential adaptive value of altered appetite regulation in the face of predicted nutritional deprivation, with impaired fetal growth as a marker for the in utero states that would produce such a prediction. We suggest that the effects might be mediated by altered activity across the mesocorticolimbic dopamine.


Ventral Tegmental Area Fetal Growth Binge Eating Fetal Growth Restriction Palatable Food 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abizaid A (2009) Ghrelin and dopamine: new insights on the peripheral regulation of appetite. J Neuroendocrinol 21:787–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abizaid A, Liu ZW, Andrews ZB, Shanabrough M, Borok E, Elsworth JD, Roth RH, Sleeman MW, Picciotto MR, Tschöp MH, Gao XB, Horvath TL (2006) Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite. J Clin Invest 116:3229–3239PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adam TC, Epel ES (2007) Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiol Behav 91:449–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adinoff B, Devous MD, Best SE, Chandler P, Alexander D, Payne K, Harris TS, Williams M (2003) Gender differences in limbic responsiveness, by SPECT, following a pharmacologic challenge in healthy subjects. Neuroimage 18:697–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Appelhans BM, Woolf K, Pagoto SL, Schneider KL, Whited MC, Liebman R (2011) Inhibiting food reward. Delay discounting, food reward sensitivity, and palatable food intake in overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:2175–2182Google Scholar
  6. Arnsten AF (2001) Modulation of prefrontal cortical-striatal circuits: relevance to therapeutic treatments for Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adv Neurol 85:333–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Asghari V, Sanyal S, Buchwaldt S, Paterson A, Jovanovic V, Van Tol HH (1995) Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants. J Neurochem 65:1157–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayres C, Agranonik M, Portella AK, Filion F, Johnston CC, Silveira PP (2012) Intrauterine growth restriction and the fetal programming of the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn infants. Int J Pediatr 2012:657379PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baran SE, Armstrong CE, Niren DC (2009) Chronic stress and sex differences on the recall of fear conditioning and extinction. Neurobiol Learn Mem 91:321–330Google Scholar
  10. Barbieri MA, Portella AK, Silveira PP, Bettiol H, Agranonik M, Silva AA, Goldani MZ (2009) Severe intrauterine growth restriction is associated with higher spontaneous carbohydrate intake in young women. Pediatr Res 65:215–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barker DJ, Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Osmond C (2002) Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological basis. Int J Epidemiol 31:1235–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bateson P, Barker D, Clutton-Brock T, Deb D, D'Udine B, Foley RA, Gluckman P, Godfrey K, Kirkwood T, Lahr MM, McNamara J, Metcalfe NB, Monaghan P, Spencer HG, Sultan SE (2004) Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 430:419–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berridge KC (2000) Measuring hedonic impact in animals and infants: microstructure of affective taste reactivity patterns. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24:173–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Berridge KC (2007) The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:391–431Google Scholar
  15. Bondi CO, Rodriguez G, Gould GG, Frazer A, Morilak DA (2008) Chronic unpredictable stress induces a cognitive deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats that is prevented by chronic antidepressant drug treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:320–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Botting N, Powls A, Cooke RW, Marlow N (1997) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and other psychiatric outcomes in very low birth weight children at 12 years. J Child Psychol Psychiat 38:931941Google Scholar
  17. Breslau N, Chilcoat HD (2000) Psychiatric sequelae of low birth weight at 11 years of age. Biol Psychiat 47:1005–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Breslau N, Klein N, Allen L (1988) Very low birth weight: behavioral sequelae at nine years of age. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiat 27:605–612Google Scholar
  19. Campbell BC, Eisenberg D (2007) Obesity, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and the dopaminergic reward system. Coll Anthropol 31:33–88Google Scholar
  20. Cerqueira JJ, Mailliet F, Almeida OFX, Jay TM, Sousa N (2007) The prefrontal cortex as a key target of the maladaptive response to stress. J Neurosci 27:2781–2787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chapman K, Holmes MC, Seckl JR (2013) 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: intracellular gate-keepers of tissue glucocorticoid action. Physiol Rev 93:1139–1206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cortese S, Angriman M, Maffeis C, Isnard P, Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Purper-Ouakil D, Vincenzi B, Bernardina BD, Mouren MC (2008) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48:524–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooke LJ, Wardle J (2005) Age and gender differences in children’s food preferences. Brit J Nutrit 93:741–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Costello EJ, Worthman C, Erkanli A, Angold A (2007) Prediction from low birth weight to female adolescent depression: a test of competing hypotheses. Arch Gen Psychiat 64:338–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dallman MF, Pecoraro NC, la Fleur SE (2005) Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication and abdominal obesity. Brain Behav Immun 19:275–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis C, Patte K, Levitan RD, Reid C, Tweed S, Curtis C (2007a) From motivation to behaviour: a model of reward sensitivity, overeating, and food preferences in the risk profile for obesity. Appetite 48:12–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Davis C, Levitan RD, Kaplan AS, Carter J, Reid C, Curtis C, Patte K, Kennedy JL (2007b) Dopamine transporter gene (DAT1): associated with appetite suppression to Methylphenidate in a case-control study of binge eating disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2:2199–2206Google Scholar
  28. Davis C, Levitan RD, Kaplan AS, Carter J, Reid C, Curtis C, Patte K, Hwang R, Kennedy JL (2008) Reward sensitivity and the D2 dopamine receptor gene: a case-control study of binge eating disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharm Biol Psychiat 32:620–628Google Scholar
  29. Davis JF, Choi DL, Schurdak JD, Fitzgerald MF, Clegg DJ, Lipton JW, Figlewicz DP, Benoit SC (2011) Leptin regulates energy balance and motivation through action at distinct neural circuits. Biol Psychiat 69:668–674PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Demos KE, Heatherton TF, Kelley WM (2012) Individual differences in nucleus accumbens activity to food and sexual images predict weight gain and sexual behavior. J Neurosci 32:5549–5552PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Diekhof EK, Gruber O (2010) When desire collides with reason: functional interactions between anteroventral prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens underlie the human ability to resist impulsive desires. J Neurosci 30:1488–1493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. DiLeone RJ (2009) The influence of leptin on the dopamine system and implications for ingestive behavior. Intl J Obesity 33:S25–S29Google Scholar
  33. Dolan SL, Bechara A, Nathan PE (2008) Executive dysfunction as a risk marker for substance abuse: the role of impulsive personality traits. Behav Sci Law 26:799–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Domingos AI, Vaynshteyn J, Voss HU, Ren X, Gradinaru V, Zang F, Deisseroth K, de Araujo IE, Friedman J (2011) Leptin regulates the reward value of nutrient. Nat Neurosci 14:1562–1568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunn JP, Kessler RM, Feurer ID, Volkow ND, Patterson BW, Ansari MS, Li R, Marks-Shulman P, Abumrad NN (2012) Relationship of dopamine type 2 receptor binding potential with fasting neuroendocrine hormones and insulin sensitivity in human obesity. Diabetes Care 35:1105–1111PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Epel E, Lapidus R, McEwen B, Brownell K (2001) Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology 26:37–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Faraone SV, Doyle AE, Mick E, Biederman J (2001) Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine d(4) receptor gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiat 158:1052–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Farooqi IS, Bullmore E, Keogh J, Gillard J, O’Rahilly S, Fletcher PC (2007) Leptin regulates striatal regions and human eating behavior. Science 317:1355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Figlewicz DP (2003) Adiposity signals and food reward: expanding the CNS roles of insulin and leptin. Am J Physiol Regul Integrat Comp Physiol 284:R882–R892Google Scholar
  40. Figlewicz D, Sipols AJ (2010) Energy regulatory signals and food reward. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97:15–24PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Figlewicz DP, Bennett JL, Aliakbari S, Zavosh A, Sipols AJ (2008) Insulin acts at different CNS sites to decrease acute sucrose intake and sucrose self-administration in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integrat Comp Physiol 295:R388–R394Google Scholar
  42. Foster MT, Warne JP, Ginsberg AB, Horneman HF, Pecoraro NC, Akana SF, Dallman MF (2009) Palatable foods, stress, and energy stores sculpt corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropin, and corticosterone concentrations after restraint. Endocrinology 150:2325–2333PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Franzek EJ, Sprangers N, Janssens AC, Van Duijn CM, Van De Wetering BJ (2008) Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life. Addiction 103:433–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fulton S, Pissios P, Manchon RP, Stiles L, Frank L, Pothos EN, Maratos-Flier E, Flier JS (2006) Leptin regulation of the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway. Neuron 51:811–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Galloway T (2007) Gender differences in growth and nutrition in a sample of rural Ontario school children. Am J Human Biol 19:774–788Google Scholar
  46. Garcia R, Spennato G, Nilsson-Todd L, Moreau JL, Deschaux O (2008) Hippocampal low-frequency stimulation and chronic mild stress similarly disrupt fear extinction memory in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 89:560–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Geva R, Eshel R, Leitner Y, Valevski AF, Harel S (2006) Neuropsychological outcome of children with intrauterine growth restriction: a 9-year prospective study. Pediatrics 118:91–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gibson EL (2012) The psychobiology of comfort eating: implications for neuropharmacological interventions. Behav Pharmacol 23:442–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Glover V, O’Connor TG (2002) Effects of antenatal stress and anxiety: implications for development and psychiatry. Br J Psychiat 180:389–391Google Scholar
  50. Gluckman PD, Hanson MA (2007) Developmental plasticity and human disease: research directions. J Intern Med 261:461–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gluckman PD, Lillycrop KA, Vickers MH, Pleasants AB, Phillips ES, Beedle AS, Burdge GC, Hanson MA (2007) Metabolic plasticity during mammalian development is directionally dependent on early nutritional status. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12796–12800PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Cooper C, Thornburg KL (2008) Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med 359:61–73PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Goland RS, Jozak S, Warren WB, Conwell IM, Stark RI, Tropper PJ (1993) Elevated levels of umbilical cord plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone in growth-retarded fetuses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77:1174–1179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Grigson PS (2002) Like drugs for chocolate: separate rewards modulated by common mechanisms. Physiol Behav 76:389–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hales CN, Barker DJ (1992) Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35:595–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hales CN, Barker DJ (2001) The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Br Med Bull 60:5–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Heinonen K, Räikkönen K, Pesonen AK, Andersson S, Kajantie E, Eriksson JG, Wolke D, Lano A (2010) Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: a longitudinal study. BMC Pediatr 15:10:91Google Scholar
  58. Hill AJ (2002) Developmental issues in attitudes to food and diet. Proc Nutr Soc 61:259–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Holden C (2001) Behavioral' addictions: do they exist? Science 294:980–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hommel JD, Trinko R, Sears RM, Georgescu D, Liu ZW, Gao XB, Thurmon JJ, Marinelli M, DiLeone RJ (2006) Leptin receptor signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons regulates feeding. Neuron 51:801–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Huang XF, Yu Y, Zavitsanou K, Han M, Storlien L (2005) Differential expression of dopamine D2 and D4 receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in mice prone, or resistant, to chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity. Brain Res Molec Brain Res 135:150–161Google Scholar
  62. Hurd YL, Svensson P, Ponten M (1999) The role of dopamine, dynorphin, and CART systems in the ventral striatum and amygdala in cocaine abuse. Ann NY Acad Sci 877:499–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Indredavik MS, Vik T, Heyerdahl S, Romundstad P, Brubakk AM (2005) Low-birth weight adolescents: quality of life and parent-child relations. Acta Paediatr 94:1295–1302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jerlhag E, Egecioglu E, Dickson SL, Andersson M, Svensson L, Engel JA (2006) Ghrelin stimulates locomotor activity and accumbal dopamine-overflow via central cholinergic systems in mice: implications for its involvement in brain reward. Addiction Biol 11:45–54Google Scholar
  65. Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (2008) A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction associated with maximum BMI in women with bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Dis 41:22–28Google Scholar
  66. Kaseva N, Wehkalampi K, Hemio K, Hovi P, Järvenpää AL, Andersson S, Eriksson JG, Lindström J, Kajantie E (2013) Diet and nutrient intake in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight. J Pediat 163:43–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kermack WO, McKendrick AG, McKinlay PL (1934) Death-rates in Great Britain and Sweden: expression of specific mortality rates as products of two factors, and some consequences thereof. J Hyg (Lond) 34:433–457Google Scholar
  68. Killgore W, Young A, Femia L, Bogorodzki P, Rogowska J, Yurgelun-Todd DA (2003) Cortical and limbic activation during viewing of high- versus low-calorie foods. Neuroimage 19:1381–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Labouebe G, Liu S, Dias C, Zou H, Wong JC, Karunakaran S, Clee SM, Phillips AG, Boutrel B, Borgland SL (2013) Insulin induces long-term depression of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons via endocannabinoids. Nat Neurosci 16:300–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. la Fleur SE, Houshyar H, Roy M (2005) Choice of lard, but not total lard calories, damps adrenocorticotropin responses to restraint. Endocrinology 146:2193–2199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lapane KL, Waring ME (2008) Overweight in children and adolescents in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 122:4Google Scholar
  72. Leitner Y, Fattal-Valevski A, Geva R, Eshel R, Toledano-Alhadef H, Rotstein M, Bassan H, Radianu B, Bitchonsky O, Jaffa AJ, Harel S (2007) Neurodevelopmental outcome of children with intrauterine growth retardation: a longitudinal, 10-year prospective study. J Child Neurol 22:580–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Levitan RD, Masellis M, Lam RW, Muglia P, Basile VS, Jain U, Kaplan AS, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy SH, Kennedy JL (2004a) Childhood inattention and dysphoria and adult obesity associated with the dopamine D4 receptor gene in overeating women with seasonal affective disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:179–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Levitan RD, Masellis M, Basile VS, Lam RW, Kaplan AS, Davis C, Muglia P, Mackenzie B, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy SH, Macciardi F, Kennedy JL (2004b) The dopamine-4 receptor gene associated with binge eating and weight gain in women with seasonal affective disorder: an evolutionary perspective. Biol Psychiat 56:665–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Levitan RD, Masellis M, Lam RW, Kaplan AS, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Mackenzie B, Basile VS, Kennedy JL (2006) A season of birth/dopamine-4 receptor gene interaction associated with weight gain and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder: a seasonal thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2498–2503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Levitan RD, Kaplan AS, Davis C, Lam RW, Kennedy JL (2010) A season-of-birth/DRD4 interaction predicts maximal body mass index in women with bulimia nervosa. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1729–1733PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lussana F, Painter RC, Ocke MC, Buller HR, Bossuyt PM, Roseboom TJ (2008) Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine is associated with a preference for fatty foods and a more atherogenic lipid profile. Am J Clin Nutr 88:1648–1652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Martel P, Fantino M (1996) Mesolimbic dopaminergic system activity as a function of food reward: a microdialysis study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 53:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McCormick MC, Gortmaker SL, Sobol AM (1990) Very low birth weight children: behavior problems and school difficulty in a national sample. J Pediatr 117:687–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McCormick MC, Brooks-Gunn J, Workman-Daniels K, Turner J, Peckham GJ (1992) The health and developmental status of very low-birth-weight children at school age. JAMA 267:2204–2208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Meaney MJ, Szyf M, Seckl JR (2007) Epigenetic mechanisms of perinatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and health. Trends Molec Med 13:269–277Google Scholar
  82. Mebel DM, Wong JC, Dong YJ, Borgland SL (2012) Insulin in the ventral tegmental area reduces hedonic feeding and suppresses dopamine concentration via increased reuptake. Eur J Neurosci 36:2336–2346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Meguid MM, Fetissove SO, Varma M, Sato T, Zhang L, Laviano A, Rossi-Fanelli F (2000) Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake. Nutrition 16:843–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mick E, Biederman J, Prince J, Fischer MJ, Faraone SV (2002) Impact of low birth weight on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Devel Behav Ped 23:16–22Google Scholar
  85. Mietus-Snyder ML, Robert H, Lustig RH (2008) Childhood obesity: adrift in the “limbic triangle”. Annu Rev Med 59:147–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Miracle AD, Brace MF, Huyck KD, Singler SA, Wellman CL (2006) Chronic stress impairs recall of extinction of conditioned fear. Neurobiol Learn Mem 85:213–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Narayanan NS, Guarnieri DJ, DiLeone RJ (2010) Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding. Front Neuroendocrinol 31:104–112PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. O’Callaghan MJ, Harvey JM (1997) Biological predictors and co-morbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in extremely low birth weight infants at school. J Paediatr Child Health 33:491–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. O’Donnell K, Gaudreau H, Colalillo S, Steiner M, Atkinson L, Moss E, Meaney MJ (2014) The Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) Project: theory and methodology. SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  90. Oliver G, Wardle J, Gibson EL (2000) Stress and food choice: a laboratory study. Psychosom Med 62:853–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Opland DM, Leinninger GM, Myers MG (2010) Modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by leptin. Brain Res 1350:65–70PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Overduin J, Figlewicz DP, Bennett-Jay J, Kittleson S, Cummings DE (2012) Ghrelin increases the motivation to eat, but does not alter food palatability. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 303:R259–R269PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pagoto SL, Curtin C, Lemon SC, Bandini LG, Schneider KL, Bodenlos JS, Ma Y (2009) Association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in the US population. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:539–544Google Scholar
  94. Palmiter RD (2007) Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behavior? Trends Neurosci 30:375–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Pasamanick B, Lilienfeld AM (1955) Association of maternal and fetal factors with development of mental deficiency. 1. Abnormalities in the prenatal and perinatal periods. J Am Med Assoc 159:155–160Google Scholar
  96. Pecoraro N, Dallman MF, Warne JP, Ginsberg AB, Laugero KD, la Fleur SE, Houshyar H, Gomez F, Bhargava A, Akana SF (2006) From Malthus to motive: how the HPA axis engineers the phenotype, yoking needs to wants. Progr Neurobiol 79:247–340Google Scholar
  97. Perälä MM, Männistö S, Kaartinen NE, Kajantie E, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Valsta LM, Eriksson JG (2012) Body size at birth Is associated with food and nutrient intake in adulthood. PLoS One 7Google Scholar
  98. Perry ML, Leinninger GM, Chen R, Luderman KD, Yang H, Gnegy ME, Myers MG Jr, Kennedy RT (2010) Leptin promotes dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the nucleus accumbens of Sprague-Dawley rats. J Neurochem 114:666–674PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Poston WS 2nd, Ericsson M, Linder J, Haddock CK, Hanis CL, Nilsson T, Aström M, Foreyt JP (1998) D4 dopamine receptor gene exon III polymorphism and obesity risk. D4 dopamine receptor gene exon III polymorphism and obesity risk. Eat Weight Disord 3:71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rothemund Y, Preuschhof C, Bohner G, Bauknecht HC, Klingebiel R, Flor H, Klapp BF (2007) Differential activation of the dorsal striatum by high-calorie visual food stimuli in obese individuals. Neuroimage 37:410–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rutters F, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Lemmens SG, Born JM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2009) Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger. Obesity 17:72–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Saper CB, Chou TC, Elmquist JK (2002) The need to feed: homeostatic and hedonic control of eating. Neuron 36:199–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sasaluxnanon C, Kaewpornsawan T (2005) Risk factor of birth weight below 2,500 grams and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Thai children. J Med Assoc Thai 88:1514–1518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Schoots O, van Tol HH (2003) The human dopamine D4 receptor repeat sequences modulate expression. Pharmacogenom J 3:343–348Google Scholar
  105. Shimura T, Kamada Y, Yamamoto T (2002) Ventral tegmental lesions reduce overconsumption of normally preferred taste fluid in rats. Behav Brain Res 134:123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Small DM, Jones-Gotman M, Dagher A (2003) Feeding-induced dopamine release in dorsal striatum correlates with meal pleasantness ratings in healthy human volunteers. Neuroimage 19:1709–1715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sobik L, Hutchison K, Craighead L (2005) Cue-elicited craving for food. A fresh approach to the study of binge eating. Appetite 44:253–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stein AD, Rundle A, Wada N, Goldbohm RA, Lumey LH (2009) Associations of gestational exposure to famine with energy balance and macronutrient density of the diet at age 58 years differ according to the reference population used. J Nutr 139:1555–1561PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Stice E, Spoor S, Bohon C, Small DM (2008) Relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by TaqIA A1 allele. Science 322:449–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stice E, Yokum S, Blum K, Bohon C (2010) Weight gain is associated with reduced striatal response to palatable food. J Neurosci 30:13105–13109PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Thompson JL, Borgland SL (2013) Presynaptic leptin action suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission onto ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Biol Psychiat 73:860–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Trinko R, Gan G, Gao XB, Sears RM, Guarnieri DJ, DiLeone RJ (2011) Erk1/2 mediates leptin receptor signaling in the ventral tegmental area. PLoS One 6:e27180PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. van den Bergh BR, Mennes M, Stevens V et al (2006) ADHD deficit as measured in adolescent boys with a continuous performance task is related to antenatal maternal anxiety. Pediatr Res 59:78–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. van den Berg L, Pieterse K, Malik JA, Luman M, Willems van Dijk K, Oosterlaan J, Delemarre-van de Waal HA (2011) Association between impulsivity, reward responsiveness and body mass index in children. Int J Obes (Lond) 35:1301–1307Google Scholar
  115. van der Reijden-Lakeman IE, de Sonneville LM, Swaab-Barneveld HJ, Slijper FM, Verhulst FC (1997) Evaluation of attention before and after 2years of growth hormone treatment in intrauterine growth retarded children. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 19:101–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Van Tol HH, Bunzow JR, Guan HC, Sunahara RK, Seeman P, Niznik HB, Civelli O (1991) Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine. Nature 350:610–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Verbeken S, Braet C, Lammertyn J, Goossens L, Moens E (2012) How is reward sensitivity related to bodyweight in children? Appetite 58:478–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Vickers MH, Breier BH, Cutfield WS, Hofman PL, Gluckman PD (2000) Fetal origins of hyperphagia, obesity, and hypertension and postnatal amplification by hypercaloric nutrition. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Volkow ND, Wise RA (2005) How can drug addiction help us understand obesity? Nat Neurosci 8:555–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Wardle J, Steptoe A, Oliver G, Lipsey Z (2000) Stress, dietary restraint and food intake. J Psychosom Res 48:195–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wise RA (2006) Role of brain dopamine in food reward and reinforcement. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:1149–1158PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de MedicinaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulRio Grande do SulBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and PhysiologyUniversity of Toronto and Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Human DevelopmentUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Douglas Mental Health University InstituteMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  5. 5.Singapore Institute for Clinical SciencesSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations