Modelling Evacuation Using Escalators: A London Underground Dataset

  • Michael J. KinseyEmail author
  • Edwin R. Galea
  • Peter J. Lawrence
Conference paper


This paper presents a brief analysis of an escalator human factors dataset collected in a London Underground (subway) station in England. The data analysis highlights and quantifies a variety of escalator human factors. Using the buildingEXODUS evacuation software, a series of evacuation scenarios of a hypothetical underground station are then presented. The simulation results demonstrate that escalator strategies and associated human factors can have a considerably influence upon an evacuation compared to using stairs alone.


Escalator Evacuation Modeling Pedestrian Human factors Underground Subway Transit station 



Michael Kinsey gratefully acknowledges the support of the Fire Safety Engineering Group of the University of Greenwich and the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC) for providing him with a bursary under their Ph.D. bursary scheme. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Kingfell, London Underground Limited and British National Rail in providing access to the facilities for the collection of the escalator data.


  1. 1.
    Strakosch, G., Caporale, R.S.: The Vertical Transportation Handbook, The Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Sharif, L.: Escalator Handling Capacity: Standards Versus Practice, Elevator World (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheung, C., Lam, W.: Pedestrian Route Choices Between Escalator and Stairway in MTR Stations, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp227–285 (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davis, P., Dutta, G.: Estimation of Capacity of Escalators in London Underground, No 2002-11-01, IIMA Working Papers from Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kinsey, M.J, Galea, E.R, Lawrence, P.J, Blackshields, D., Hulse, L., Day, R. and Sharp, G.: Modelling Pedestrian Escalator Behaviour, Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED) Conference, pp689–695 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kinsey, M.J, Galea, E.R, Lawrence, P.J.: Extended Model of Pedestrian Escalator Behaviour Based on Data Collected within a Chinese Underground Station, Proceedings of the Human Behaviour in Fire Conference, pp173–182 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Galea, E.R., Lawrence, P.J., Gwynne, S., Filippidis, L., Blackshields, D., Cooney, D.: BuildingEXODUS V5.0 User Guide and Technical Manual, Fire Safety Engineering Group, University of Greenwich (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kinsey, M.J.: Vertical Transport Evacuation Modelling’, PhD Thesis, University of Greenwich (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fruin, J.J.: Pedestrian Planning and Design, Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners (1971)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    NFPA – National Fire Protection Association: NFPA 130: Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems, Technical Report (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Transport for London (TFL): ‘1996 Rolling Stock’, (2010)
  12. 12.
    Planning Press of China: Code for Design of Subway. GB 50157-2003 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Kinsey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Edwin R. Galea
    • 1
  • Peter J. Lawrence
    • 1
  1. 1.Fire Safety Engineering GroupUniversity of GreenwichGreenwichUK

Personalised recommendations