Advertisement

Poás Volcano pp 261-299 | Cite as

Volcanic Hazard Assessment of Poás (Costa Rica) Based on the 1834, 1910, 1953–1955 and 2017 Historical Eruptions

  • Raúl Alberto Mora AmadorEmail author
  • Dmitri Rouwet
  • Gino González
  • Priscilla Vargas
  • Carlos Ramírez
Chapter
Part of the Active Volcanoes of the World book series (AVOLCAN)

Abstract

Poás is a complex stratovolcano with an altitude of 2,708 m a.s.l., located in the Cordillera Volcánica Central of Costa Rica. Prior to 2017, the last three historical eruptions occurred on 7th of February 1834, between January and May 1910 and during the period 1953–1955. Very few information exists on the 1834 eruption. The only references state that: it was an important event; ash reached >53 km W–SW of Poás, and it harmed the grasslands around the volcano. Related deposits of this eruption suggest phreatic activity, which launched bombs and blocks. Moreover, there is evidence of pyroclastic flow deposits near the crater. The 1910 eruption is better described. Despite the fact that ash fall is only reported near the volcano, a volume of the deposit of 1.6 × 107 m3 was estimated. Deposits of the eruption are white in color with many hydrothermally altered, and minor presence of juvenile fragments (vesicular lapilli). The eruption is classified as vulcanian, with deposits of ash fall and pyroclastic flows close to the crater. A Volcano Explosivity Index 3 (VEI 3) is estimated. The eruption affected agriculture. The 1953–1955 eruptions had a longer duration. Various ash fall deposits at several sites were reported. Deposits of this eruption, easily distinguished in the field, are black scoria lapilli, bombs with, sometimes fusiform, bread crust textures. In the eastern sector of the crater bombs can reach meters in size; such large bombs near the eruption centre at one side suggest the inclination of the eruptive conduct, or an asymmetrical vent-crater system. Inside the crater a 40 m-high dome and a lava flow were extruded during the eruption. Towards the eastern side of the current Laguna Caliente crater lake, relicts of a 8.5 m thick lava pool are found. During the entire eruptive episode, the acid lake presumably lacked. The eruption is described to be of a mixed type: strombolian, phreatomagmatic, vulcanian and dome extrusion eruptions. Considering the characteristics of this eruption, the height of the eruption column, ejected volume (2.1 × 107 m3), and its presumed duration, a VEI 3 is estimated. The eruptions damaged agricultural activity (including cattle), and forced the spontaneous evacuation of some people. In April 2017 magmatic eruptions followed a decade-long period of intense phreatic activity. These eruptions destroyed the 1953–1955 Dome and led to the complete dry out of Laguna Caliente. Pyroclastic cones and sulfur volcanism manifested at the bottom of the former crater lake bottom. The 2017 eruption severely affected touristic activities at and near Poás, with an estimated economic loss of 20 million dollars. By May–August 2018 Laguna Caliente reappeared. The volcanic hazards related to the three studied historical eruptions are: pyroclastic flows (at least 1 km from the eruptive centre, including reaching the current mirador sector), ballistics (bomb ejections up to 2 km from the emission centre), dispersion and fall of pyroclasts (tens of kms), gas emission and acid rain, dispersed by WSW dominant winds, and lahars in most of the river canyons SW of the volcano.

Keywords

Poás volcano Laguna caliente Sulfur Phreatic eruption Volcanic hazard 

References

  1. Alvarado GE, Pérez W, Sigarán C (2000) Vigilancia y peligro volcánico. In: Denyer P, Kussamul S (eds) Geología de Costa Rica. Editorial Tecnológica de Costa Rica, Cartago, pp 251–272 (In Spanish)Google Scholar
  2. Alvarado GE, Soto G, Pullinger C, Escobar R, Bonis S, Escobar D, Navarro M (2007) Volcanic activity, hazards and monitoring. In: Bundschuh J, Alvarado GE (eds) Central America: geology, resources and hazards. Taylor and Francis, Londres, pp 1155–1186Google Scholar
  3. Beck U (2000) Retorno a la teoría de la sociedad del riesgo. Bol A.G.E. 30:9–20Google Scholar
  4. Bennett FD, Raccichini SM (1978) Subaqueous Sulphur lake in Volcan Poás. Nature 271:342–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blong RJ (1984) Volcanic hazards: a sourcebook on the effects of eruptions, 1st ed. Ed Academic Press, Sydney, 424 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Brenes R (1932) Macizo del Poás. In: Obregón M (ed) Geografía General de Costa Rica. Imp. Lines A. Reyes, San José, pp 127–128. (In Spanish)Google Scholar
  7. Bretón M, Ramírez J, Navarro C (2002) Summary of the historical eruptive activity of Volcán de Colima, Mexico 1519–2000. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 117:21–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown G, Rymer H, Dowden J, Kapadia P, Stevenson D, Barquero J, Morales LD (1989) Energy Budget analysis for Poás Crater lake: implications for predicting volcanic activity. Nature 339:370–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bullard F (1956) La actividad en Costa Rica y Nicaragua en 1954. In Vargas C, (1979) Volcán Poás Ed UNED, San José, pp 109–118Google Scholar
  10. Carrivick J, Manville V, Cronin SJ (2009) A fluid dynamics approach to modelling the 18th March 2007 lahar et Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand. Bull Volcanol 71:153–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Casertano L, Borgia A, Cigolini C (1983) El Volcán Poás, Costa Rica: Cronologia y características de la actividad. Geofis Inter 3:215–236Google Scholar
  12. Cashman KV, Cronin SH (2008) Welcoming a monster to the world: Myths, oral tradition, and modern societal response to volcanic disasters. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 176:407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caudron C, Syahbana DK, Lecocq T, Van Hinsberg V, McCausland W, Triantafyllou A, Camelbeeck T, Bernard A, Surono (2015) Kawah Ijen volcanic activity: a review. Bull Volcanol 77:16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-014-0885-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christenson BW, Reyes AG, Young R, Moebis A, Sherburn S, Cole-Baker J, Britten K (2010) Cyclic processes and factors leading to phreatic eruption events: insights from the 25 September 2007 eruption through Ruapehu Crater Lake, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 191:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Del Gaudio C, Aquino I, Ricciardi GP, Ricco C, Scandone R (2010) Unrest episodes at Campi Flegrei: A reconstruction of vertical ground movements during 1905–2009. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 195:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Moor JM, Aiuppa A, Pacheco J, Avard G, Kern C, Liuzzo M, Martínez M, Giudice G, Fischer TP (2016) Short-period volcanic gas precursors to phreatic eruptions: insights from Poás Volcano, Costa Rica. Earth Planet Sci Lett 442:218–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.02.056
  17. Dóndoli C (1965) Volcanismo reciente de Costa Rica. In: Vargas C (1979) Volcán Poás Ed UNED, San José, pp 127–132Google Scholar
  18. Fernández R (1961) La actividad del volcán Poás en el año 1953 y su transformación de seudogéiser en volcán humeante. In: Vargas C (1979) Volcán Poás Ed UNED, San José 119–126Google Scholar
  19. Francis PW, Thorpe RS, Brown GC (1980) Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poás Volcano, Costa Rica. Nature 283:754–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fernández-Arce M, Mora-Amador R Seismicity of Poás volcano, Costa Rica (Chapter 5). In: Tassi F, Mora-Amador R, Vaselli O (eds) Poás volcano (Costa Rica): the pulsing heart of Central America Volcanic Zone. Springer, Heidelberg (Germany)Google Scholar
  21. Fischer TP, Ramírez C, Mora-Amador RA, Hilton DR, Barnes JD, Sharp ZD, Le brun M, de Moor JM, Barry PH, Füri E, Shaw AM (2015) Temporal variations in fumarole gas chemistry at Poás volcano, Costa Rica. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 294:56–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.02.002
  22. Hantke G (1951) Übersicht über die Vulkanische Tätigkeit, 1941–1947. Bull Volcanol 14:161–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hantke G (1953) Übersicht über die Vulkanische Tätigkeit, 1948–1950. Bull Volcanol 14:151–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hilton DR, Ramirez CJ, Mora-Amador R, Fischer TP, Füri E, Barry PH, Shaw AM (2010) Monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in fumarole helium and carbon dioxide characteristics at Poás and Turrialba volcanoes, Costa Rica (2001–2009). Geochem J 44:431–440Google Scholar
  25. Kempter KA, Benner SG, Williams SN (1996) Rincón de la Vieja, Guanacaste province, Costa Rica: geology of the southwestern flank and hazards implications. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 71:109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leiva E (1904) El volcán Poás. In: Vargas C (1979) Volcán Poás (ed) UNED, San José, pp 63–66Google Scholar
  27. Leiva E (1906) Una excursión al volcán Poás. In: Vargas C, (1979) Volcán Poás (ed) UNED, San José, pp 69–70Google Scholar
  28. Manville V (2015) Volcano-hydrologic hazards from volcanic lakes. In: Rouwet D, Christenson B, Tassi F, Vandemeulebrouck J (eds) Volcanic Lakes, Springer, Heidelberg, pp 21–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36833-2_2
  29. Martínez M, Fernández E, Valdés J, Barboza V, Van der Laat R, Duarte E, Malavassi E, Sandoval L, Barquero J, Marino T (2000) Chemical evolution and activity of the active crater lake of Poás volcano, Costa Rica, 1993–1997. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 97:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martínez M, van Bergen MJ, Takano B, Fernández E, Barquero J (2008) Long term behaviour of polythionate polymers in the hyperacid crater lake of Poás volcano: insights into the subaqueous input of magmatic gases (Chapter 7). In: Tassi F, Mora-Amador R, Vaselli O (eds) Poás volcano (Costa Rica): The pulsing heart of Central America Volcanic Zone. Springer, Heidelberg (Germany)Google Scholar
  31. Marzocchi W, Bebbington M (2012) Probabilistic eruption forecasting at short and long time scales. Bull Volcanol 74:1777.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-012-0633-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marzocchi W, Sandri L, Gasparini P, Newhall C, Boschi E (2004) Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: the example of volcanic hazard at Mt Vesuvius. J Geophys Res 109:B11.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jb003155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mora M (1997) Informe de la actividad de los volcanes Poás e Irazú, 1994–1996. RSN UCR 52 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Mora-Amador R (2009) Volcán Poás, 18 de setiembre del 2009, combustión de azufre y erupción freática. RSN UCR (informe interno)Google Scholar
  35. Mora-Amador R, Rouwet D, González G, Vargas P, Ramírez C Volcanic hazard assessment of Poás (Costa Rica) based on the major historical eruptions of 1834, 1910 and 1953–1955 (Chapter 11). In: Tassi F, Mora-Amador R, Vaselli O (eds) Poás volcano (Costa Rica): The pulsing heart of Central America Volcanic Zone. Springer, Heidelberg (Germany)Google Scholar
  36. Mora-Amador R, Ramírez C (2008) Sulfur flows at Poás volcano, Costa Rica. IAVCEI General Assembly 2008, Reykjavík Iceland:85Google Scholar
  37. Mora-Amador R, Rouwet D, Vargas P (2016) The extraordinary sulfur eruptions of Poás volcano from 1828 to 2016 (Chapter 3). In: Tassi F, Mora-Amador R, Vaselli O (eds) Poás volcano (Costa Rica): the pulsing heart of Central America Volcanic Zone. Springer, Heidelberg (Germany)Google Scholar
  38. Newhall CG, Self S (1982) The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism. J Geophys Res 87(C2):1231–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oersted AS (1863) L’Amerique Centrale: Recherches sur sa flore et sa Géographie Physique. Imprenta Blanco Luna, Copenhague (Denmark)Google Scholar
  40. Oppenheimer C (1992) Sulfur eruptions at Volcán Poás, Costa Rica. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 49:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ortiz R, Araña V (1996) Daños que pueden producir las erupciones. In: Ortiz R (ed) Riesgo, Volcánico edn. Servicio de publicaciones, Lanzarote, España, pp 37–66Google Scholar
  42. Paniagua S, Soto G (1988) Peligros volcánicos en el valle central de Costa Rica. Ciencia y Tecnología 1:145–156Google Scholar
  43. Peraldo G, Rodríguez A (2001) Documentos alusivos a las amenazas naturales en Costa Rica y sus efectos en la sociedad del siglo XIX. Inf Sem I.G.N. 37:89–101Google Scholar
  44. Phillipson G, Sobradelo R, Gottsmann J (2013) Global volcani unrest in the 21st century: an analysis of the fist decade. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 264:183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Procter JN, Cronin SJ, Fuller IC, Sheridan M, Neall VE, Keys H (2010) Lahar hazard assessment using Titan2D for an alluvial fan with rapidly changing geomorphology: Whangaehu River, Mt. Ruapehu. Geomorphology 116:162–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.10.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Prosser JT, Carr MJ (1987) Poás Volcano, Costa Rica geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 33:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Quesada MA (2007) Diccionario de Costarriqueñismos, 4th edn. Tecnológica de Costa Rica, San José, 413 p (In Spanish)Google Scholar
  48. Rouwet D, Morrissey MM (2015) Mechanisms of crater lake breaching eruptions. In: Rouwet D, Christenson BW, Tassi F, Vandemeulebrouck J (eds) Volcanic lakes. Springer, Heidelberg (Germany).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36833-2_3
  49. Rouwet D, Mora-Amador R, Sandri L, Ramírez CJ, González G, Pecoraino G, Capaccioni B (2014a) 39 years of geochemical monitoring of Laguna Caliente crater lake, Poás: Patterns from the past as keys for the future (Chapter 9). In: Tassi F, Mora-Amador R, Vaselli O, (eds) Poás volcano (Costa Rica): The pulsing heart of Central America Volcanic Zone. Springer, Heidelberg (Germany)Google Scholar
  50. Rouwet D, Sandri L, Marzocchi W, Gottsmann J, Selva J, Tonini R, Papale P (2014b) Recognizing and tracking volcanic hazards related to non-magmatic unrest: a review. J Appl Volcanol 3:17.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13617-014-0017-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rouwet D, Mora-Amador R, Ramírez CJ, González G, Inguaggiato S (2016) Dynamic fluid recycling at Laguna Caliente (Poás, Costa Rica) before and during the 2006—ongoing phreatic eruption cycle (2005–10). In: Ohba, T, Capaccioni B, Caudron C (eds) Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes. Geol Soc London, Special Publication, 437.  https://doi.org/10.1144/sp437.11
  52. Rowe GL, Brantley SL, Fernández M, Fernández JF, Borgia A, Barquero J (1992a) Fluid-volcano interaction in an active stratovolcano: the Crater Lake system of Poás Volcano, Costa Rica. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 64:233–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rowe GL, Ohsawa S, Takano B, Brantley SL, Fernández JF, Barquero J (1992b) Using crater lake chemistry to predict volcanic activity at Poás Volcano, Costa Rica. Bull Volcanol 54:494–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rudín M (1905) Algunos detalles sobre el volcán Poás. In: Vargas C (1979) Volcán Poás Ed UNED, San José, pp 67–68Google Scholar
  55. Rudín J, Alfaro A, Michaud G, Rudín A (1910) Gran erupción de ceniza del volcán Poás. In: Vargas C (1979) Volcán Poás Ed UNED, San José, pp 75–82Google Scholar
  56. Soto G, Alvarado GE (1989) Procesos volcánicos asociados con el agua subterránea: El caso de los volcanes Arenal y Poás, Costa Rica. Congr Nac Recur Hídr, San José, Costa Rica, pp 249–261Google Scholar
  57. Soto G, Paniagua S (1992) La Cordillera Volcánica Central (Costa Rica): sus peligros potenciales y prevenciones. Rev Geogr Amér Central 25–26:291–304 (In Spanish with English abstract)Google Scholar
  58. Takano B, Saitoh H, Takano E (1994) Geochemical implications of subaqueous molten sulfur at Yugama crater lake, Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, Japan. Geochem J 28:199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Todesco M, Rouwet D, Nespoli m, Bonafede M (2015) How steep is my seep? Seepage in Volcanic lakes. Hints from numerical simulations, In: Rouwet D, Christenson BW, Tassi F, Vandemeulebrouck J (eds) Volcanic lakes. Springer, Heidelberg.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36833-2_3
  60. Vargas MJ (1967) Aspectos de la actividad volcánica de Costa Rica en los últimos tiempos. Efimérides Costarricenses 3:18–25 (In Spanish)Google Scholar
  61. Vaselli O, Tassi F, Fischer TP, Tardani D, Fernandez Soto E, Martinez M, De Moor MJ, Bini G The last eighteen years (1998–2014) of fumarolic degassing at the Poás volcano (Costa Rica) and renewal activity (Chapter 10). In: Tassi F, Mora-Amador R, Vaselli O (eds) Poás volcano (Costa Rica). The pulsing heart of Central America Volcanic Zone. Springer, Heidelberg (Germany)Google Scholar
  62. Von Frantzius A (1861) Aporte al conocimiento de los volcanes de Costa Rica, Escalamiento al volcán Poás, marzo 1860. In Vargas C, (1979) Volcán Poás Ed UNED, San José 11–34. (In Spanish)Google Scholar

References Newspapers and Journals

  1. La República, 26 enero 1910: Erupción del Volcán PoásGoogle Scholar
  2. La Prensa Libre, 27 enero 1910: Erupción del PoásGoogle Scholar
  3. La Prensa Libre, 28 enero 1910: Más lluvia de cenizaGoogle Scholar
  4. La Prensa Libre, 29 enero 1910: De Grecia, Lluvia de CenizaGoogle Scholar
  5. La Prensa Libre, 1 febrero 1910: La lluvia de cenizaGoogle Scholar
  6. La República, 2 febrero 1910: La ceniza del Poás resulta ser venenosaGoogle Scholar
  7. La República, 9 febrero 1910: Peces muertos en el río SarapiquíGoogle Scholar
  8. La Nación, 20 mayo 1953, pág. 1: Lluvia de ceniza del Volcán Poás en Vara Blanca y alrededoresGoogle Scholar
  9. La Nación, 22 mayo 1953, pág. 5: Nueva y grande erupción del PoásGoogle Scholar
  10. La Nación, 24 mayo 1953, pág. 43: Evacuación de viviendas en alrededores del Volcán PoásGoogle Scholar
  11. La Nación, 28 mayo 1953, pág. 11: Retumbos y humo del Volcán Poás ayerGoogle Scholar
  12. La Nación, 6 junio 1953, pág. 20: Lluvia de ceniza en Río CuartoGoogle Scholar
  13. La Nación, 10 junio 1953, pág. 1: El Poás se trago la laguna inmensa de su cráterGoogle Scholar
  14. La Nación, 12 junio 1953, pág. 1: La furia del giganteGoogle Scholar
  15. La Nación, 10 julio 1953, pág. 1: Vuelve la actividad volcánicaGoogle Scholar
  16. La Prensa Libre, 18 julio 1953, pág. 1: Centenares de cabeza de ganado en peligroGoogle Scholar
  17. La República, 15 enero 1954, pág. 3: Grandes pérdidas cafetaleras por erupciones del PoásGoogle Scholar
  18. Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica, Serie Municipal, No. 778Google Scholar
  19. Monestel Y (1953) Carta a César Dóndoli, InéditoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raúl Alberto Mora Amador
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Dmitri Rouwet
    • 3
  • Gino González
    • 4
  • Priscilla Vargas
    • 2
  • Carlos Ramírez
    • 4
  1. 1.Escuela Centroamericana de GeologíaUniversity of Costa Rica (UCR)San JoséCosta Rica
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Ecología UrbanaUniversidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED)San JoséCosta Rica
  3. 3.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisca e Vulcanologia (INGV)Sezione di BolognaItaly
  4. 4.Volcanes Sin Fronteras (VSF)San JoséCosta Rica

Personalised recommendations