Low-Flow Vascular Malformations

  • Jovan N. MarkovicEmail author
  • Cynthia K. Shortell


Congenital vascular malformations (CVM) are a group of unique vascular disorders that can be defined as “diffuse or localized embryologically developed errors of vascular morphogenesis leading to true structural anomalies”. The presence of CVM in the general population is estimated to be around 1.5 %, with no known sex predilection. Venous malformations are the most common type of CVM, and they comprise approximately two-thirds of all CVMs. The diagnosis and treatment of CVM can be complex and challenging. Patients with CVM can easily be misdiagnosed and also mismanaged. Consequently, many patients have been discouraged by the lack of correct diagnosis and proper treatment despite numerous visits to different clinics (from primary care physicians to subspecialists). Moreover, patients with CVM have frequently been left untreated, due to the mistaken presumption that these types of lesions can spontaneously regress, while others were considered too high risk to treat. This chapter discusses CVM: classification, multidisciplinary approach diagnosis, and management.


Vascular Malformation Venous Malformation Infantile Hemangioma Lymphatic Malformation Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Vascular SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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