Advertisement

The São Francisco Craton and Its Margins

  • Monica HeilbronEmail author
  • Umberto G. Cordani
  • Fernando F. Alkmim
Chapter
Part of the Regional Geology Reviews book series (RGR)

Abstract

The Brazilian shield, land surface expression of the Precambrian nucleus of South America, exposes cratons and a network of Neoproterozoic orogenic belts. The cratons correspond to internal parts of plates that amalgamated to form West Gondwana by the end of the Neoproterozoic and beginning of the Paleozoic. The Neoproterozoic Brasiliano belts, on the other hand, encompass the margin of those plates and accreted terranes. As one among five old and differentiated components of the South American lithosphere, the São Francisco craton (SFC) of southeastern Brazil represents the most intensively studied Precambrian terrain of the continent. This chapter contains introductory information on the SFC, which display attributes typical of the ancient lithosphere and hosts a rock record that spans from the Paleoarchean to the Cenozoic. Together with its bounding orogenic belts the SFC can be viewed as continent within a continent or a continent in miniature. Here, we present a panoramic view of the craton and its marginal belts, briefly discuss the history of its definition and delimitation, and conclude with an outline of the present book.

Keywords

Craton South American platform Brasiliano event São Francisco craton Neoproterozoic 

References

  1. Alkmim, F.F. 2015. Geological background: A tectonic panorama of Brazil. In: Vieira et al. (eds): Landscapes and Landforms of Brazil. World Geomorphological Landscapes, Springer, p. 9–17.Google Scholar
  2. Alkmim, F.F. and Marshak, S., 1998. Transamazonian Orogeny in the Southern São Francisco Craton Region, Brazil: Evidence for Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Precambrian Research, 90, 29–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkmim F.F., Martins-Neto M.A. 2005. Brazil. In: Encyclopedia of Geology, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 306–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alkmim, F.F. and Martins-Neto, M.A., 2012. Proterozoic first-order sedimentary sequences of the São Francisco craton, eastern Brazil. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 33, 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alkmim, F.F.; Brito Neves, B.B.; Castro Alves, J.A., 1993. Arcabouço tectônico do Cráton do São Francisco - Uma Revisão. In: Dominguez, J.M.L. & Misi, A. (eds) O Cráton do São Francisco.Salvador, SBG/Núcleo BA/SE, SGM/BA. p. 45–62Google Scholar
  6. Alkmim, F.F., Marshak, S. Fonseca, M.A., 2001. Assembling West Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic: Clues from the São Francisco craton region, Brazil. Geology, v. 29, p. 319–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alkmim, F.F., Marshak, S., Pedrosa-Soares, A.C., Peres, G.G., Cruz, S., Whittington, A. 2006. Kinematic evolution of the Araçuaí-West Congo orogen in Brazil and Africa: Nutcracker tectonics during the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana. Precambrian Research 149, 43–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Almeida, F.F.M. 1967. Origem e evolução da Plataforma Brasileira. DNPM-DGM, Boletim 241, 36p.Google Scholar
  9. Almeida, F.F.M. 1969. Diferenciação Tectônica da Plataforma Brasileira, Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, Salvador, Anais, p. 29–46.Google Scholar
  10. Almeida, F.F.M., 1977. O Cráton do São Francisco. Revista Brasileira de Geociências, 7, 285–295.Google Scholar
  11. Almeida, F.F.M.1981. O Cráton do Paramirim e suas relações com o do São Francisco. Simpósio Sobre o Cráton do São Francisco e Suas Faixas Marginais. Salvador, 1981. SBG-Núcleo Bahia, Salvador, Anais, p. 1–10.Google Scholar
  12. Almeida, F.F. M., Hasui, Y., Brito Neves, B.B., and Fuck, R.A., 1981. Brazilian structural provinces: An introduction. Earth-Sciences Reviews 17, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Almeida, F.F.M., Brito Neves, B.B., Carneiro, C.D.R., 2000. Origin and evolution of the South American Platform. Earth-Science Reviews, 50, 77–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Alvarenga, C.A.V., C. Moura and P.S.S. Gorayeb 2000. The Araguaia belt. In: Cordani, U.G.; Milani, E.J.; Thomaz Fo, A.; Campos, D.A. (eds) Tectonic Evolution of South America. 31st Intern. Geol. Congr. Rio de Janeiro, p. 335–365Google Scholar
  15. Artemieva, I.M., Mooney, W.D., 2001. Thermal structure and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: a global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barbosa, A.L.M., 1966. Síntese da Evolução Geológica da América do Sul. Boletim do Instituto de Geologia, Escola de Minas de Ouro Preto, 1 (2), 91–111.Google Scholar
  17. Barbosa, J.S.F. and Sabaté, P. 2004. Archean and Paleoproterozoic crust of the São Francisco Craton, Bahia, Brazil: geodynamic features. Precambrian Research, 133, 1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bates, R.L. and Jackson J.A., 1980. Glossary of Geology. American Geological Institute, Falls Church, VA, USA, 751 p.Google Scholar
  19. Braun, O.PG. and Baptista, M.B. 1978. Considerações sobre geologia pré-cambriana da região sudeste e parte da região centro-oeste do Brasil. In: Rocha et al. (eds): Anais da reunião preapratória para Simpósio sobre o Cráton do São Francisco e suas Faixa Marginais. Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, NBA, Publicação Especial, 3, p. 255–368.Google Scholar
  20. Brito-Neves, B.B., 2002. Main stages of development of sedimentary basins of South America and their relationships of tectonics of supercontinents. Gondwana Reserarch, 5, 175–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brito-Neves, B. B. and Alkmim, F.F., 1993. Cráton: A evolução de um conceito. In: Dominguez, J.M.L. & Misi, A. (Eds). O Cráton do São Francisco.Salvador, Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, Núcleo BA/SE, p. 1–10.Google Scholar
  22. Brito-Neves, B.B., Campos Neto, M.C., Fuck, R., 1999. From Rodinia to Western Gondwana: An approach to the Brasiliano/Pan-African cycle and orogenic collage. Episodes 22, 155–199Google Scholar
  23. Brito Neves, BB., Santos, EJ., Van Schmus, WR., 2000. Tectonic history of the Borborema Province, Northeastern Brazil. In: Cordani, U., Milani, EJ., Thomaz Filho, A., Campos, DA. (Eds), Tetonic Evolution of South America. Proceedings of the 31 International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, 151–182Google Scholar
  24. Caxito, F.A., Dantas, E.L., Stevenson, R., Uhlein, A., 2014a. Detrital zircon (U-Pb) and Sm-Nd isotope studies of the provenance and tectonic setting of basins related to collisional orogens: The case of the Rio Preto fold belt on the northwest São Francisco Craton margin, NE Brazil. Gondwana Research, 26(2):741–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Caxito, F.A., Uhlein, A., Stevenson, R., Uhlein, G.J., 2014b. Neoproterozoic oceanic crust remnants in northeast Brazil. Geology, 42(5):387–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Campos Neto, M.C. 2000. Orogenic Systems from Southwestern Gondwana: An approach to Brasiliano-PanAfrican Cycle and Orogenic Collage in Southeastern Brazil. In: Cordani, U.G.; Milani, E.J.; Thomaz Filho, A.; Campos, D.A. (eds.) Tectonic Evolution of South América. Rio de Janeiro, 31st International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, p. 335–365.Google Scholar
  27. Chang, H.K.; Kowsmann, R.O.; Figueiredo, A.M.F.; Bender, A.A., 1992. Tectonics and stratigraphy of the East Brazil Rift system: an overview. Tectonophysics, 213: 97–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cordani, U.G. 1973. Definição e caracterização do Cráton São Francisco. 27th Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, Anais, v. 2, p. 142–145.Google Scholar
  29. Cordani, U.G. 1978. Comentários filosóficos sobre a evolução geológica pré-cambriana. In: Rocha et al. (eds): Anais da reunião preapratória para Simpósio sobre o Cráton do São Francisco e suas Faixa Marginais. Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, NBA, Publicação Especial, 3, p. 33–65.Google Scholar
  30. Cordani, U.G. and K. Sato, 1999. Crustal evolution of the South American Platform, based on Sm-Nd isotopic systematic on granitoid rocks. Episodes, 22, 167–173Google Scholar
  31. Cordani, U.G., Melcher, G.C., Almeida, F.F.M., 1968. Outline of the Precambrian geochronology of South America. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 5, 629–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cruz, S. & Alkmim, F.F. 2004. The tectonic interaction between the Paramirim Aulacogen and the Araçuaí Belt, São Francisco Craton region, Eastern Brazil. Submetido aos Anais.Acad. Bras. Cienc.Google Scholar
  33. Dawson, J.B. 1980. Kimberlites and their xenoliths. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 252p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dardenne, M. A., 2000. The Brasilia Fold belt. In: Cordani, U.G.; Milani, E.J.; Thomaz Fo, A.; Campos, D.A. (eds) Tectonic Evolution of South America. 31st Intern. Geol. Congr. Rio de Janeiro, p. 231–264Google Scholar
  35. Eaton, D.W., Darbyshire, F., Evans, R.L., Grütter, H., Jones, A.G., Yuan, X., 2009. The elusive lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath cratons. Lithos, 109, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ebert, H. 1968. Ocorrências da Fácies Granulito no sul de Minas Gerais e em áreas adjacentes, em dependência da estrutura orogênica. Anais da Acad. Brás. Cien., 40 (Suplemento): 215–229Google Scholar
  37. Figueiredo, M.C.H., 1989. Geochemical evolution of eastern Bahia, Brazil: A probable Early Proterozoic subduction-related magmatic arc. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 2(2),131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feybesse, J.L., Johan, V., Triboulet, C., Guerrot, C., Mayaga-Mikolo, F., Bouchot, V., Eko N’dong, J., 1998. The West Central African belt: a model of 2.5–2.0 Ga accretion and two-phase orogenic evolution. Precambrian Research, 87, 161–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Forte, A.M., Perry, H.C.K., 2001. Geodynamic evidence for a chemically depleted continental tectosphere. Science 290, 1940–1944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fuck, R.A.; Brito Neves, B.B.; Schobbenhaus, C., 2008. Rodinia descendants in South America. Precambrian Research, 160, 108–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grand, S. 1987. Tomographic inversion for shear velocity beneath the North American plate. J.Geophys.Res., 92: 14065–14090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guimarães, D. 1951. Arqui-Brasil e sua Evolução Geológica. DNPM-DFPM, Boletim 88, 314p.Google Scholar
  43. Heilbron, M.; A.C. Pedrosa-Soares, M.C. Campos Neto, R.A.J. Trouw and V.A. Janasi, 2004. Província Mantiqueira. In: Mantesso-Neto et al. (eds) Geologia do Continente Sul-Americano.Evolução da obra de Fernando Flávio Marques de Almeida. Becca, São Paulo, p. 203–234Google Scholar
  44. Jordan, T.H. 1978. Composition and development of the continental tectosphere. Nature, 274: 544–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jordan, T.H. 1988. Structure and formation of the continental tectosphere. Journal of Petrology, Spec. Lithosphere Issue, p. 11–37.Google Scholar
  46. Kaban, M.; Schwintzer, P.; Artemeiva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D. 2003. Density of the continental roots: compositional and thermal contributions. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 209: 53–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karner, G.D.; Egan, S.S; Weissel, J.K. 1992. Modeling the tectonic development of the Tucano and Sergipe-Alagoas rift basins, Brazil. Tectonophysics, 215: 133–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ledru, P., Johan, V., Milesi, J.P., Tegyey, M. 1994. Evidence for a 2 Ga continental accretion in the circum-south Atlantic provinces. Precambrian Research, 69, 169–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McKenzie, D., Daly M.C., Priestley, K. 2015. The lithosphere structure of Pangea. Geology, 43, 783–786Google Scholar
  50. Milani, E.J. and Thomaz-Filho 2000. Sedimentary Basins of South America. In: Cordani, U.G.; Milani, E.J.; Thomaz Fo, A.; Campos, D.A. (eds.) Tectonic Evolution of South América. Rio de Janeiro, 31st International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, p. 389–449Google Scholar
  51. Milani, E.J., Lana, M.C., Szatmari, P., 1988. Mesozoic rift basins around the northeast Brazilian microplate (Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá, Sergipe-Alagoas). In: W. Manzpeizer (ed.) Triassic-Jurassic rifting: Continental breakup and the origin of the Atlantic Ocean and passive margins. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 833–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maurin, J.-C., 1993. La châıne panafricaine ouest-congolienne: correlation avec le domain est-brésilien et hypothese géodynamique. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 164, 51–60.Google Scholar
  53. Oliveira E.P., Windley B.F., Araújo M.N.C. 2010. The Neoproterozoic Sergipano orogenic belt, NE Brazil: a complete plate tectonic cycle in western Gondwana. Precambrian Research 181, 64–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pedrosa Soares, A.C.; Noce, C.M.; Vidal, P.; Monteiro, R.L.B.P.; Leonardos, O.H. 1992. Towards a new tectonic model for the upper Proterozoic Araçuai (SE Brazil)-West Congolian(SW Afric) Belt. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 6, 33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pedrosa Soares, A.C.; Noce, C.M.; Wiedemann, C.M.; Pinto, C.P. 2001. The Araçuaí-West-Congo Orogen in Brazil: an overview of a confined orogen formed during Gondwanaland assembly. Precambrian Research, 110(1–4), 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pedrosa-Soares, A.C., Noce, C.M., Wiedemann, C.M., Pinto, C.P., 2001. The Araçuaí-West Congo orogen in Brazil: An overview of a confined orogen formed during Gondwanland assembly. Precambrian Research 110, 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pimentel, M.M., R.A. Fuck, H. Jost, C.F. Ferreira Filho and S.M. Araújo 2000. The basement of Brasília fold belt and the Goiás magmatic arc. In: Cordani, U.G., Milani, E.J., Thomaz Filho, A., Campos, D.A. (Eds.) Tectonic Evolution of South America. International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, p. 195–232Google Scholar
  58. Pimentel, M.M.; H. Jost, and R.A. Fuck 2004. O Embasamento da Faixa Brasilía e o arco magmático de Goiás. In: Mantesso-Neto et al. (eds) Geologia do Continente Sul-Americano.Evolução da obra de Fernando Flávio Marques de Almeida. Becca, São Paulo, p. 356–381Google Scholar
  59. Pollak, H.N. & Chapman, D.S. 1977. On the regional variation of heat flow, geotherms and lithospheric thickness. Tectonophysics, 38: 279–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Porada, H. 1989. Pan-African Rifting and Orogenesis in Southern to Equatorial África and Eastern Brazil. Precam. Res., 44: 103–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schobbenhaus, C. and Brito Neves, B.B., 2003.Geology of Brazil in the context of the South American Platform. In: Bizzi, L.A.; Schobbenhaus, C.; Vidotti, R.M. and Gonçalves, J.H. (eds). Geology, Tectonics and Mineral Resources of Brazil. Serviço Geológico – CPRM, Brasília, p. 5–54Google Scholar
  62. Sengör, A.M.C. 1999. Continental interiors and cratons: any relation? Tectonophysics, 305: 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tack, L.; Wingate, M.T.D; Liégeois, J.-P; Fernandez-Alonso, M.; Deblond, A. 2001. Early Neoproterozoic magmatism (1000–910 Ma) of the Zadinian and Mayumbian Groups (Bas-Congo): onset of Rodinia rifting at the western edge of the Congo craton. Precambrian Res., 110(1–4): 277–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tavora, FJ., Cordani, UG., Kawashita, K. 1967. Determinações de idade K-Ar em rochas da região central da Bahia. In: Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, 21. Curitiba, 1967. Anais... Curitiba. SBG,  234–244Google Scholar
  65. Teixeira, W., Sabaté, P., Barbosa, J., Noce, C.M., Carneiro, M.A., 2000. Archean and Paleoproterzoic tectonic evolution of the São Francisco craton, Brazil. In: Cordani, U.G.; Milani, E.J.; Thomaz Filho, A.; Campos, D.A. (eds.) Tectonic Evolution of South América. Rio de Janeiro, 31st International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, 101–137.Google Scholar
  66. Teixeira, W., Ávila, C.A., Dussin, I.A., Neto, A.C., Bongiolo, E.M., Santos, J.O., Barbosa, N.S., 2015. A juvenile accretion episode (2.35–2.32 Ga) in the Mineiro belt and its role to the Minas accretionary orogeny: Zircon U–Pb–Hf and geochemical evidences. Precambrian Research, 256, 148–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thiéblemont, D., Bouton, P., Préat, A., Goujou, J.C., Tegyey, M., Weber F., Obiang. M.E., Joron, J.L., Treuil, M., 2014. Transition from alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanism during evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon (Western Central Africa). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 99, 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Trompette, R. 1994. Geology of Western Gondwana (2000–500 Ma). Pan-African-Brasiliano Aggregation of South América and Africa. Balkema, Rotterdam, 350 p.Google Scholar
  69. Trompette, R.; Uhlein, A.; Egydio Da Silva, M.; Karmann, I. 1992. The Brasiliano São Francisco craton revisited (central Brazil). Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 6, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trouw, R.J.A; M. Heilbron, W.Ribeiro, F. Pacciulo, C.M. Valeriano, J.C.H. Almeida, M.Tupinambá and R.R. Adreis, 2000. The central segment of the Ribeira belt. In: Cordani, U.G.; Milani, E.J.; Thomaz Fo, A.; Campos, D.A. (eds.) Tectonic Evolution of South América. Rio de Janeiro, 31st International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, p. 287–310.Google Scholar
  71. Valeriano, C.M.; Machado, N.; Simonetti, A.; Valladares, C.S.; Seer, H.J.; Simões, L.S.A. 2004. U-Pb Geochronology of the Southern Brasília Belt (SE-BRAZIL): Sedimentary Provenance, Neoproterozoic Orogeny and Assembly of West Gondwana. Precambrian Research, 130, 27–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vauchez, A., Neves, S., Caby, R., Corsini, M. Egydio-Silva, M., Arthau, M., Amaro, V., 1995. The Borborema shear zone system, NE Brazil. Journal of South America Earth Sciences, 8, 247–266Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica Heilbron
    • 1
    Email author
  • Umberto G. Cordani
    • 2
  • Fernando F. Alkmim
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculdade de Geologia, Tektos Research GroupUniversidade do Estado Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de GeociênciasUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Geologia, Escola de MinasUniversidade Federal de Ouro PretoOuro PretoBrazil

Personalised recommendations