Swarm Planning for Climate Change: How Transformations Can Be Achieved
In this chapter, the core issue is the way we can deal in our planning for the future with uncertainty of that future, specifically related to climate change. One way to deal with it is to change our planning approach. In what is called Swarm Planning, the design of the spatial environment is based on complex system characteristics, aiming to develop a higher adaptive capacity to deal with external shocks. Swarm Planning therefore strives for transformations that enhance adaptation, through locating the optimal places for change through network analysis and create the space for free emergent growth, located in so-called unplanned space. Then our spatial design, based on these premises, will perform a higher resilience and is less vulnerable for unforeseeable impacts of climate change.
KeywordsSwarm Planning Complex adaptive systems Transformation Uncertainty Adaptive capacity Resilience
- Cohen J, Stewart I (1994) The collapse of chaos: discovering simplicity in a complex world. Penguin Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Lietaer B, Belgin S (2008) Big change. In: Lietaer and Belgin, Of human wealth: new money for a new world. Citerra Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
- Prigogine Y, Stengers I (1984) Order out of chaos. Man’s new dialogue with nature. Bantam Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Roggema R (2012) Swarming landscapes: the art of designing for climate adaptation. Springer, Dordrecht/Heidelberg/LondonGoogle Scholar
- Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) (2007) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkGoogle Scholar