Improving Entrepreneurial Competency in Low-Income Segments: The Impact of Entrepreneurial Development Agents
Micro-enterprises, with fewer than ten employees, are responsible for most new jobs in emerging economies. Unfortunately, low-income entrepreneurs frequently lack enough entrepreneurial competency to survive and expand. The research presented in this chapter aims to evaluate the importance of entrepreneurial development agencies at the base of the pyramid. Structural equation modelling with survey data from enterprises participating in an entrepreneurship education process in Mexico provides evidence of the positive and significant impact of entrepreneurial development agencies on performance, with the mediating effect of market-product innovation and market orientation.
KeywordsContextual Factor Market Orientation Entrepreneurial Orientation Corporate Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship Education
- Broad, M. L., & Newstrom, J. W. (1992). Transfer of training: Action packed strategies to high payoff from training investments. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
- Bruton, G. D., Ahlstrom, D. & Obloj, K. (2008). Entrepreneurship in emerging economies: Where are we today and where should the research go in the future. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 32(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modeling with EQS. Basic concepts, applications, and programming (Multivariate Applications Series; 2nd edn.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1971). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNall.Google Scholar
- Chablé Sangeado, J. J., & Aragón, A. (2009). Análisis estratégico para el desarrollo de la micro, pequeña y mediana empresa del Estado de Tabasco. Villahermosa: Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco.Google Scholar
- Covin, J. G., & Miles, M. P. (1999). Corporate entrepreneurship and the pursuit of competitive advantage. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 23(3), 47–63.Google Scholar
- Cummins, R. A. (2006). Personal wellbeing index (4th ed.). Melbourne: International Wellbeing Group, Australian Centre on Quality of Life, Deakin University.Google Scholar
- Espinosa, A. (2007). Formación de capital humano y energía social en el campo mexicano. Mexico: Fundación Miguel Alemán, Comité de Evaluación del Programa de Desarrollo Rural.Google Scholar
- Hatcher, L. (1994). A step-by-step approach to using the SAS system for factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
- Khandwalla, P. N. (1976/1977). Some top management styles, their context and performance. Organization and Administrative Sciences, 7(4), 21–51.Google Scholar
- Kreiser, P. M., Marino L. D. & Weaver, K. M. (2002). Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial orientation scale: A multi-country analysis. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(4), 71–94.Google Scholar
- Lessof, C. & Jowell, R. (2000). Measuring social exclusion. Working Paper 84. Centre for Research into Election Social and Trends, Department of Sociology, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
- Meade, A. W., Watson, A. M. & Kroustalis, C. M. (2007). Assessing common method bias in organizational research. Paper given at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New York.Google Scholar
- Miles, J. (2003). A framework for power analysis using a structural equation modeling procedure. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 3(27) (n.p.). Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/3/27.
- Prahalad, C. K., & Hart, S. (2002). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Strategy + Business, 26, 2–14.Google Scholar
- Steffens, P., Davidsson, P., & Fitzsimmons, J. (2009). Performance configurations over time: implications for growth and profit-oriented strategies. Entrepreneurship: Theory and. Practice, 33(1), 125–148.Google Scholar
- Subramanian, R., Kumar, K. & Strandholm, K. (2009). The relationship between market orientation and performance under different environmental conditions: the moderating effect of the top management team’s risk-taking behaviour. The Free Library, 1 January. Retrieved May 12, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/ The relationship between market orientation and performance under…-a0219010990.