The Print-Scan Problem in Printed Steganography of Face Images

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 226)


The use of steganography and watermarking techniques for a secure identification and automatic authentication of the holder’s photo in an ICAO-consistent (travel) document is proposed. A specific distortion of the hidden watermarks is caused by the print-scan process, as a printed photo is scanned to constitute the reference pattern in face verification. The main distortions induced by this process are identified - image rotation and cropping, nonlinear intensity change and additive color quantization noise. Three steganography methods are selected and adapted for this application. They provide hidden watermark insertion in the image domain, the Fourier-Mellin transform domain or in a net of normalized triangle regions. Test results induce the conditions for the proper use of these methods.


Steganography Method Hide Information Carrier Image Complex Block Document Holder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alattar, A.M., Meyer, J.: Watermark re-synchronization using log-polar mapping of image autocorrelation. In: ISCAS 2003, Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 2, pp. 928–931 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bas, P., Chassery, J.M., Macq, B.: Geometrically invariant watermarking using feature points. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(9), 1014–1028 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blackledge, J.: Cryptography and Steganography. New Algorithms and Applications. Center for Advanced Studies, WUT Warszawa (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fu, M.S., Au, O.C.: Data hiding watermarking in halftone images. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(4), 477–484 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N N Fujitsu Laboratories Printable Steganography (2004),
  6. 6.
    Kang, X., Huang, J., Zeng, W.: Efficient general print-scanning resilient data hiding based on uniform log-polar mapping. IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security 5(1), 1–12 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kasprzak, W., Cichocki, A.: Hidden Image Separation From Incomplete Image Mixtures by Independent Component Analysis. In: 13th Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, ICPR 1996, vol. II, pp. 394–398. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lin, C.Y., Chang, S.F.: Distortion modeling and invariant extraction for digital image print-and-scan process. In: Int. Symposium Multimedia Information Processing (December 1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lipiński, P.: Watermarking software in practical applications. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Technical Sciences 59(1), 21–25 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nikolaidis, A., Pitas, I.: Robust watermarking of facial images based on salient geometric pattern matching. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 2, 172–184 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rosen, J., Javidi, B.: Hidden images in halftone pictures. Appl. Opt. 40(20), 3346–3353 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    O’Ruanaidh, J., Pun, T.: Rotation, scale, and translation invariant spread spectrum digital image watermarking. Signal Processing 66(3), 303–318 (1998)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Solachidis, V., Pitas, I.: Circularly Symmetric Watermark Embedding in 2D DFT Domain. IEEE Trans. Image Processing 10(11), 1741–1753 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Solanki, K., Madhow, U., Manjunath, B.S., Chandrasekaran, S., El-Khalil, I.: Print and Scan Resilient Data Hiding in Images. IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security 1(4), 464–478 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Control and Computation EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarszawaPoland

Personalised recommendations