Advertisement

Holocene Environmental Variability in the Arctic Gateway

  • Robert F. SpielhagenEmail author
  • Juliane Müller
  • Axel Wagner
  • Kirstin Werner
  • Gerrit Lohmann
  • Matthias Prange
  • Rüdiger Stein
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences book series (BRIEFSEARTHSYST)

Abstract

Environmental changes in the region connecting the Arctic Ocean and the northern North Atlantic were studied for the last 9,000 years (9 ka) by a combination of proxy-based paleoceanographic reconstructions as well as transient and time-slice simulations with climate models. Today, the area is perennially ice-covered in the west and ice-free in the east. Results show that sea-ice conditions were highly variable on short timescales in the last 9 ka. However, sea-ice proxies reveal an overall eastward movement of the sea-ice margin, in line with a decreasing influence of warm Atlantic Water advected to the Arctic Ocean. These cooling trends were rapidly reversed 100 years ago and replaced by the general warming in the Arctic. Model results show a consistently high freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean during the last 7 ka. The signal is robust against the Holocene cooling trend, however sensitive towards the warming trend of the last century. These results may play a role in the observed Arctic changes.

Keywords

Arctic Ocean Holocene Sea ice Atlantic Water River run-off Global warming 

References

  1. Müller J, Massé G, Stein R, Belt ST (2009) Variability of sea-ice conditions in the Fram Strait over the past 30,000 years. Nat Geosci 2(11):772–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Müller J, Wagner A, Fahl K, Stein R, Prange M, Lohmann G (2011) Towards quantitative sea ice reconstructions in the northern North Atlantic: a combined biomarker and numerical modelling approach. Earth Planet Sci Lett 306(3–4):137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Müller J, Werner K, Stein R, Fahl K, Moros M, Jansen E (2012) Holocene cooling culminates in Neoglacial sea ice oscillations in fram strait. Quat Sci Rev 47:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Spielhagen RF, Werner K, Sørensen SA, Zamelczyk K, Kandiano E, Budeus G, Husum K, Marchitto TM, Hald M (2011) Enhanced modern heat transfer to the Arctic by warm Atlantic Water. Science 331(6016):450–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Stärz M, Gong X, Stein R, Darby DA, Kauker F, Lohmann G (2012) Glacial shortcut of Arctic sea-ice transport. Earth Planet Sci Lett 357–358:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Stein R, Fahl K, Müller J (2012) Proxy reconstruction of Arctic Ocean sea ice history: from IRD to IP25. Polarforschung 82:37–71Google Scholar
  7. Wagner A, Lohmann G, Prange M (2011) Arctic river discharge trends since 7 ka BP. Global Planet Change 79:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Werner K, Spielhagen RF, Bauch D, Hass HC, Kandiano E, Zamelczyk K (2011) Atlantic Water advection to the eastern Fram Strait - Multiproxy evidence for late Holocene variability. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 308(3–4):264–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Werner K, Spielhagen RF, Bauch D, Hass HC, Kandiano E (2013) Atlantic Water advection versus sea-ice advances in the eastern Fram Strait during the last 9 ka: Multiproxy evidence for a two-phase Holocene. Paleoceanography 28(2):283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Werner K, Frank M, Teschner C, Müller J, Spielhagen RF (2014) Neoglacial change in deep water exchange and increase of sea-ice transport through eastern Fram Strait: Evidence from radiogenic isotopes. Quat Sci Rev 92:190–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert F. Spielhagen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Juliane Müller
    • 3
  • Axel Wagner
    • 3
    • 4
  • Kirstin Werner
    • 2
  • Gerrit Lohmann
    • 3
  • Matthias Prange
    • 4
  • Rüdiger Stein
    • 3
  1. 1.Academy of Science and LiteratureMainzGermany
  2. 2.GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research KielKielGermany
  3. 3.Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany
  4. 4.University of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations