Man-made versus biological in-air sonar systems
In this chapter we will argue that biologically inspired sonar systems, i.e. man-made systems that implement functional principles of their biological counterparts, are capable of significantly improving the performance of current in-air sonar systems. Instead of collecting large numbers of sonar range readings from multiple observation points and combining them into a reliable environment map we advocate the use of intelligent sonar sensors capable of extracting significantly more information from a single measurement. As an example of this bio-inspired approach we present a binaural sonar sensor capable of localizing reflectors in 3 D-space using broadband spectral cues introduced by the emitter and receiver directional filters. Acoustic simulations indicate that duplicating the outer ears and combining them with an emitter that acts by directing emitted energy in the frontal direction should be sufficient to approximate the significant features of the directional properties of a real bat’s sonar system. Localisation is performed by a template matching scheme whereby the spectrum of the received echo signal is compared with a set of stored spectral templates, one for every direction. This bio-inspired 3 D localisation scheme was implemented on a robotic bat head and validated in a series of experiments. The results from these experiments show that both the monaural and the binaural spectral cues introduced by the emitter/receiver directional filters carry sufficient information to discriminate between different reflector locations in realistic noise conditions. The experiments further show that to track a moving spherical targetwith our robotic system spectral information from both receivers is required.
KeywordsSonar System Sonar Sensor Target Impulse Response
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Choset H, Lynch KM, Hutchinson S, Kantor G, Burgard W, Kavraki LE, Thrun S (2005) Principles of robot motion. The MIT Press, Cambridge LondonGoogle Scholar
- CIRCE (2005) URL: <http://www.ua.ac.be/main.aspx>?c=.APL&n=40656Google Scholar
- Griffin DR (1958) Listening in the dark: the acoustic orientation of bats and men. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
- Maslin GD (1983) A simple ultrasonic ranging system. In: 102nd Convention of AES, CincinattiGoogle Scholar
- Moravec H, Elfes A (1985) High resolution maps from wide angle sonar. In: Proc of the IEEE Int Conf on Robotics and Automation, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
- Peremans H (1994) A maximum likelihood algorithm for solving the correspondence problem in tri-aural perception. In: Proc IEEE Int Conf on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems, Las VegasGoogle Scholar
- Peremans H, Reijniers J (2005) The CIRCE head: a biomimetic sonar system. In: Artificial neural networks: Biological inspirations — ICANN 2005, LNCS 3696, Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Skolnik M (2008) Radar handbook 3rd Ed. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Thrun S, Burgard W, Fox D (1998) A probabilistic approach to concurrent mapping and localization for mobile robots. Machine Learning and Autonomous Robots (joint issue) 31/5: 1–25Google Scholar