Trade Integration in Manufacturing: The Chilean Experience

  • Maria Bas
  • Ivan Ledezma
Part of the Schriftenreihe der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Europaforschung (ECSA Austria) / European Community Studies Association of Austria Publication Series book series (EUROPAFORSCH, volume 12)


Using bilateral trade flow data from 1979 to 1999, we estimate trade integration between Chile and its principal trading partners (European Union, United States and Latin America) during this period. Our estimates are based on a gravity specification, theoretically grounded on a monopolistic competition framework with increasing returns. Trade barriers are measured following the border effect methodology by comparing inter-national imports to intranational ones. Our results are consistent with the agenda of trade integration followed by Chile. Moreover, trade integration turns out to be heterogeneous across industries and over the time. We also find asymmetries between export and import oriented policies. All these features are usually missing when using only direct measures of trade policies.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Bas
    • 1
  • Ivan Ledezma
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Penn State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.University Panthénon-SorbonneFrance
  3. 3.Paris School of EconomicsFrance

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