Low frequency pressure waves of possible autonomic origin in severely head-injured children
Background Useful information (both clinical and patho-physiological) which may be extracted from intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings include: (1) the mean level of ICP (and CPP), (2) cerebrovascular autoregulation status, (3) the intracranial pulse pressure (the pulse wave index, ICPpp/ICPm) or the pressure-volume compensatory reserve index (RAP) and (4) the presence of any abnormal ICP waveform. This paper describes a slow frequency ICP waveform in children with TBI and postulates the patho-physiological basis and whether it contains clinically useful detail.
Methods Children admitted to the Regional Head Injury Service in Edinburgh with TBI have continuously monitored ICP, MAP, CPP, and other physiological data (stored at a 1-min resolution). Slow frequency waveforms were noted, prompting a review of the stored monitoring from all cases over a 10 year period.
Findings Episodic slow pressure waves were detected in 11 of 122 severely head-injured (HI) children The waveforms were detected in children of all ages (1.6–15 years) in the ICP signal, which were in phase with similar fluctuations in the MAP, CPP, and HR signals Their mean periodicity was 1 per 7 min (range 1 per 5–10 min), with a mean ICP pulse wave amplitude of 5.45 mmHg (range 4–7.5), and mean MAP pulse wave amplitude (pulse pressure) of 10.4 mmHg (range 4–15 mmHg). The duration was variable (range approx 2 h to 4.5 days). They were detected in the pre-terminal phase after serious HI, as well as in those children who made an independent recovery (GOS 4/5). The waves were not related to the mean levels of ICP, CPP, MAP, temperature or the state of cerebrovascular autoregulation.
Conclusions We postulate that these previously unreported slow waveforms may reflect the very low frequency (VLF) and ultra low frequency (ULF; ≤1 per 5 min) components of heart rate and arterial blood pressure variability.
KeywordsPressure waves ICP Ultra low frequency Head injury
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