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Nucleotide sugar transporters of the Golgi apparatus

  • Weihan Zhao
  • Karen J. Colley
Chapter

Abstract

The Golgi apparatus is the major site of protein, lipid and proteoglycan glycosylation. The glycosylation enzymes, as well as kinases and sulfatases that catalyze phosphorylation and sulfation, are localized within the Golgi cisternae in characteristic distributions that frequently reflect their order in a particular pathway (Kornfeld and Kornfeld 1985; Colley 1997). The glycosyl-transferases, sulfotransferases and kinases are “transferases” that require activated donor molecules for the reactions they catalyze. For eukaryotic, fungal and protozoan glycosyltransferases these are the nucleotide sugars UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal), GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc), CMP-sialicacid (CMP-Sia), UDP-glucuronicacid (UDP-GlcA), GDP-mannose (GDP-Man), and UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) (Hirschberg et al. 1998). For the kinases, ATP functions as the donor, while for the sulfotransferases, adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphate (PAPS) acts as the donor (Hirschberg et al. 1998). The active sites of all these enzymes are oriented towards the lumen of the Golgi cisternae. This necessitates the translocation of their donors from the cytosol into the lumenal Golgi compartments. In this chapter we will focus on the structure, function and localization of the Golgi nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs), and highlight the diseases and developmental defects associated with defective transporters. We direct the reader to several excellent reviews on Golgi transporters for additional details and references (Hirschberg et al. 1998; Berninsone and Hirschberg 2000; Gerardy-Schahn et al. 2001; Handford et al. 2006; Caffaro and Hirschberg 2006).

Keywords

Nucleotide Sugar Golgi Localization Complex Vertebral Malformation Nucleotide Sugar Transporter Golgi Lumen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weihan Zhao
  • Karen J. Colley

There are no affiliations available

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