Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders pp 343-347
Multiple system atrophy and autonomic failure
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder that affects adults. It is characterised by autonomic failure affecting many systems; cardiovascular, urinary, sexual, gastrointestinal and sudomotor, amongst others. In addition there are motor deficits, resulting in both parkinsonian and/or cerebellar features. This review will outline the clinical features, investigations and management of MSA, with a particular emphasis on autonomic failure.
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