Therapeutic potential of computer to cerebral cortex implantable devices

  • Kevin WarwickEmail author
  • M. N. Gasson
  • A. J. Spiers
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica Supplements book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 97/2)


In this article, an overview of some of the latest developments in the field of cerebral cortex to computer interfacing (CCCI) is given. This is posed in the more general context of Brain-Computer Interfaces in order to assess advantages and disadvantages. The emphasis is clearly placed on practical studies that have been undertaken and reported on, as opposed to those speculated, simulated or proposed as future projects. Related areas are discussed briefly only in the context of their contribution to the studies being undertaken. The area of focus is notably the use of invasive implant technology, where a connection is made directly with the cerebral cortex and/or nervous system. Tests and experimentation which do not involve human subjects are invariably carried out a priori to indicate the eventual possibilities before human subjects are themselves involved. Some of the more pertinent animal studies from this area are discussed. The paper goes on to describe human experimentation, in which neural implants have linked the human nervous system bidirectionally with technology and the internet. A view is taken as to the prospects for the future for CCCI, in terms of its broad therapeutic role.


Neuromodulation brain-computer interface biological systems implant technology feedback control 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group, Department of Cybernetics, School of Systems EngineeringUniversity of ReadingWhiteknights, Reading, BerkshireUK

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