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Enzymatic and receptor mediated effects of secretory phospholipase A2 on the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases

  • Chad R. Marion
  • Alfred N. Fonteh
Chapter
  • 61 Downloads
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)

Abstract

Phospholipases A2 are enzymes that share the common attribute to hydrolyze fatty acids from the sn-2 position of glycerol phospholipids [1, 2, 3]. Groups I, II, V and X PLA2 are four sets of enzymes in a highly conserved family of secreted PLA2 found in mammals [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. Other non-secreted PLA2 enzymes include group IV, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) [15, 16, 17], group VI, calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) [18, 19, 20, 21, 22] and groups VII and VIII, selective acetyl hydrolases [23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28]. The secretory family of enzymes has a number of features that distinguish them from other PLA2 families including a relatively low molecular weight (~ 14 kDa), high disulfide bond content and a requirement for relatively high concentrations of calcium for maximal activation [29, 30]. In contrast, cytosolic enzymes are generally higher molecular weight proteins and require no calcium or very low calcium concentrations for optimal activation [18, 22]. Many sPLA2 isotypes are synthesized as proenzymes that contain a signal peptide sequence that facilitates its release from cells. sPLA2 isotypes have been studied extensively in mammals and in snake venoms, yet there is no clear understanding of their physiological and pathophysiological roles. Inspection of numerous publications dealing with sPLA2s reveals that they have potential to mediate a wide range of biological activities including:
  1. 1)

    Producers of AA that contributes to eicosanoid formation [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36]

     
  2. 2)

    Generation of lysophospholipids that contribute to electrophysiologic alteration that lead to arrythmogenesis in the heart or altered airway permeability and surfactant properities in the lung [37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48];

     
  3. 3)

    Potent antibacterial effects and implications in viral infections [49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54];

     
  4. 4)

    Key components in glycerophospholipid digestion [55];

     
  5. 5)

    Serum markers and potential regulators of severe illnesses such as sepsis, shock, organ injury and pancreatitis, all of which are linked to the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome or multiple organ failure [56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75];

     
  6. 6)

    Regulators of platelet aggregation in hemorrhagic diseases [76, 77, 78];

     
  7. 7)

    Prevention of apoptosis of inflammatory cells and initiators of cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines [79, 80, 81, 82];

     
  8. 8)

    A potent modifying locus in intestinal tumorigenesis in mice that is absent in human [83];

     
  9. 9)

    Pro-inflammatory components in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma [84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93].

     

Keywords

Mast Cell Mannose Receptor Cytosolic Phospholipase Secretory Phospholipase Receptor Mediate Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chad R. Marion
    • 1
  • Alfred N. Fonteh
    • 2
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal MedicineWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Molecular Neurology ProgramHuntington Medical Research InstitutesPasadenaUSA

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