Bacteria adhere to natural and synthetic, medically important surfaces within an extracellular polymer generically termed the glycocalyx. This quasi-structure is a biofilm. The enhanced antibiotic resistance of biofilm bacteria, relative to floating (planktonic) bacteria, encourages the establishment of chronic bacterial infections. Resistance mechanisms include the hinderance of antibiotic diffusion by the glycocalyx, the physiology of the bacteria and the environment conditions of the niche in which the biofilm resides.


Cystic Fibrosis Bacterial Resistance Planktonic Bacterium Sessile Cell Chronic Bacterial Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. G. Geesey, R. Mutch, J. W. Costerton and R. B. Green: Limnol. Oceanogr. 231214(1978).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. W. Costerton, K.-J. Cheng, G. G. Geesey, T. I. Ladd, J. C. Nickel, M. Dasgupta and T. J. Marrie: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 41, 435 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. W. Costerton, R. T. Irvin and K.-J. Cheng: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 35, 299 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Jacques, T. J. Marrie and J. W. Costerton: Microb. Ecol. 13, 173 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. M. Dickinson and A. L. Bisno: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33, 597 (1989).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Khoury and J. W. Costerton: Elsevier, The Netherlands (1988) p. 2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, J. Lyklema, W. Norde and A. J. B. Zehnder: Microbiol. Rev. 54, 75 (1990).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. W. Jones and R. E. Isaacson: Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 10, 229 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. M. Pashley, P. M. McGuiggan, B. W. Ninham and D. F. Evans: Science 2291088(1985).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Anwar, M. Dasgupta, K. Lam and J. W. Costerton: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 24, 647 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. M. Stanley: Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 1493 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Vanhaecke, J.-P. Remon, M. Moors, F. Raes, D. DeRudder and A. van Peteghem: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 788 (1990).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. C. Nickel, I. Ruseska, J. B. Wright and J. W. Costerton: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27, 619 (1985).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Whitfield: Can. J. Microbiol. 39, 243 (1988).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. W. Sutherland: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 39, 243 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. C. Nickel, S. K. Grant and J. W. Costerton: Urology 26, 369 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. C. Nickel, P. Feero, J. W. Costerton and E. Wilson: Can. J. Surg. 32, 131 (1989).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. D. Sottile, T.J. Marrie, D. S. Prough, C. D. Hobgood, D.J. Gower, L. X. Webb, J. W. Costerton and A. G. Gristina: Crit. Care Med. 14, 265 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. J. Marrie, M. A. Noble and J. W. Costerton: J. Clin. Microbiol. 18, 1388 (1983).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. R. Read, P. Eberwein, M. K. Dasgupta, S. K. Grant, K. Lam, J. C. Nickel and J. W. Costerton: Kidney Internat. 35, 614 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. K. Dasgupta, M. Larabie, K. Lam, K. B. Bettcher, D. L. Tyrrell and J. W. Costerton: Am. J. Nephrol. 28, 883 (1990).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. R. Franson, N. K. Sheth, H. D. Rose and P. G. Sohnle: J. Infect. Dis. 149116(1984).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. J. Marrie and J. W. Costerton: J. Clin. Microbiol. 19, 687 (1984).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. G. Gristina and J. W. Costerton: Infect, in Surg. (Sept.)655 (1984).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. J. Marrie and J. W. Costerton: J. Clin. Microbiol. 19, 911 (1984).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Jacques, M. E. Olson and J. W. Costerton: Am. J. Obst. Gyn. 154, 648 (1986).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    B. Blomstedt, B. Osterberg and A. Bergstrand: Acta Chir. Scand. 143, 71 (1977).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. G. Gristina, J. L. Price, C. D. Hobgood, L. X. Webb and J. W. Costerton: Surg. 9812(1985).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Katz, M. Izhar and D. Mirelman: Ann. Surg. 194, 35 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. E. Olson, I. Ruseska and J. W. Costerton: J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 22, 485 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T.J. Marrie and J. W. Costerton: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45, 1018 (1983).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    O. Goeau-Brissoniere, J. C. Pechere, R. Guidoin, H. P. Noel and J. Couture: Can. J. Surg. 26, 540 (1983).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. C. Y. Chan, G. Reid, A. W. Bruce and J. W. Costerton: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 481159(1984).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. G. Speer, P. B. Cotton, J. Rode, A. M. Seddon, C. R. Neal, J. Holton and J. W. Costerton: Annls Inter. Med. 108, 546 (1988).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. J. C. McLean, J. C. Nickel, T. J. Beveridge and J. W. Costerton: J. Med. Microbiol. 29, 1 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    L. Clapham, R. J. C. McLean, J. C. Nickel, J. Downey and J. W. Costerton: J. Chrystal Growth 104, 475 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Sadhu, P. A. G. Domingue, A. W. Chow, J. Nelligan, K. Bartlett and J. W. Costerton: Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 2, 99 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Mills, L. Pulliam, L. Dall, J. Marzouk, W. Wilson and J. W. Costerton: Infect. Immun. 43, 359 (1984).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. J. Marrie and J. W. Costerton: J. Clin. Microbiol. 22, 924 (1985).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. G. Gristina, M. Oga, L. X. Webb and C. D. Hobgood: Science 228, 990 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. C. Nickel, M. E. Olson, A. Barabas, H. Benediktsson, M. K. Dasgupta and J. W. Costerton: Brit. J. Urol. 65, (In Press) (1990).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. W. Morck, J. W. Costerton, D. O. Bolingbroke, H. Ceri, N. D. Boyd and M. E. Olson: Can. J. Vet. Res. 54, 139 (1990).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. S. Lam, R. Chan, K. Lam and J. W. Costerton: Infect. Immun. 28, 546 (1980).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. W. Costerton, K.-J. Cheng and K. R. Rozee: Attachment of Microorganisms to the Gastrointestinal Mucosal Surface. CRC Press. (1983) p. 189.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. Singh, L. D. Hazlett and R. S. Berk: Infect. Immun. 58, 1301 (1990).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Pier: J. Infect. Dis. 151, 575 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. B. Woolcock: Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. Am. Soc. Microbiol., Washington (1988) p. 73.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. M. Tomas, V. J. Benedi, B. Ciurana and J. Jofre: Infect. Immun. 54, 85 (1986).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. Vermeulen, A. Cross, W. R. Byrne and W. Zollinger: Infect. Immun. 56, 2723 (1988).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Anwar, M. R. W. Brown, A. Day and P. Weller: FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 24, 235 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. R. W. Brown, H. Anwar and P. A. Lambert: FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 21, 113 (1984).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    C. J. Czuprynski: Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. Am. Soc. Microbiol., Washington (1988) p. 141.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. Fomsgaard, N. Hoiby, G. H. Shand, R. S. Conrad and C. Galanos: Infect. Immun. 56,2210 (1988).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. B. Fick, Jr., R. S. Baltimore, S. U. Squier and H. Y. Reynolds: J. Infect. Dis. 757, 589 (1985).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    D. E. Woods and L. E. Bryan: J. Infect. Dis. 151, 581 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    N. Hoiby, G. Doring and P. O. Schiotz: Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 40,29 (1986).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    R. C. Evans and C.J. Holmes: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31, 889 (1987).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    A. G. Gristina, C. D. Hobgod, L. X. Webb and Q. N. Myrvik: Biomat. 8, 423 (1987).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. J. Holmes and R. C. Evans: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 24, 84 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. W. Costerton: Rev. Infect. Dis. 6, 608 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Anwar, T. van Biesen, M. Dasgupta, K. lam and J. W. Costerton: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 241824(1989).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    B. D. Hoyle and J. W. Costerton: FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 60, 339 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    C. A. Gordon, N. Hodges and C. Marriott: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22, 667 (1989).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    J. E. Pennington and H. Y. Reynolds: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 4, 299 (1973).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    B. R. Smith and J. F. LeFrock: Chest 83, 904 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    G. A. Wong, T. H. Peirce, E. Goldstein and P. D. Hoeprich: Am. J. Med. 59, 219 (1975).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    W. W. Nichols, M. J. Evans, M. P. E. Slack and H. L. Walmsley: J. Gen Microbiol. 135, 1291 (1989).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    M. R. W. Brown, D. G. Allison and P. Gilbert: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22, 777 (1988).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    P.Gilbert, P.J. Collier and M. R. W. Brown: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34, 1865 (1990).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. G. Allison, D. J. Evans, M. R. W. Brown and P. Gilbert: J. Bacteriol. 772, 1667 (1990).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    E. Tuomanen, R. Cozens, W. Tosch, O. Zak and A. Tomasz: J. Gen. Microbiol. 1321297(1986).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    P. Gilbert, D. G. Allison, D. J. Evans, P. S. Handley and M. R. W. Brown: Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 55, 1308 (1989).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    B. D. Hoyle, J. Jass and J. W. Costerton: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26, 1 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    W. G. Characklis, M. H. Turakhia and N. Zelver: Biofilms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York 1990, p. 316.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    L. P. Nielson, P. B. Christensen, N. P. Revsbech and J. Sorensen: Microb. Ecol. 79, 63 (1990).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. E. Woods, M. S. Schaeffer, H. R. Rabin, G. D. Campbell and P. A. So- kal: J. Clin. Microbiol. 24, 260 (1980).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. L. Cheung and V. A. Fischetti: Infect. Immun. 56, 1061 (1988).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    P. Williams, S. P. Denyer and R. G. Finch: FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 50, 29 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    B. L. Masecar, R. A. Celesk and N. J. Robillard: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34281(1990).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    L. Dagostino, A. E. Goodman and K. C. Marshall: Biofouling (In Press) (1991).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    T. Geers and N. R. Baker: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 19, 561 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    G. Morris and M. R. W. Brown: Ps. Newslett. 13, 18 (1988).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    K. Grimwood, M. To, H. R. Rabin and D. E. Woods: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 3341(1989).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    R. L. Warren, N. R. Baker, J. Johnson and M. J. Stapleton: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27, 468 (1985).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    W. M. Dunne, Jr.: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34, 390 (1990).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    B. Giwercman, E. T. Jensen, S. S. Pedersen, N. Hoiby and A. Kharazmi: Abstract A-153, Am. Soc. Microbiol. Ann. Meet. (1990), p. 26.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    S. D. Elek and P. E. Cowen: Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 38, 573 (1957).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    S. H. Dougherty: Rev. Infect. Dis. 10, 1102 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    A. Buret, K. H. Ward, M. E. Olson and J. W. Costerton: J. Biomed. Mat. Res. (In Press) (1991).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    J. W. Costerton: Can. J. Microbiol. 34, (1988).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    J. R. W. Govan and S. Glass: Rev. in Med Microbiol. 7,19 (1990).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    N. J. Russell and P. Gacesa: Molec. Aspects Med. 10, 1 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    J. P. Kilbourn: Curr. Microbiol. 77, 19 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian D. Hoyle
    • 1
  • J. William Costerton
    • 1
  1. 1.Biofilm Group, Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations