The Emergence of Load Balancing in Distributed Systems: the SelfLet Approach

  • Nicolò M. Calcavecchia
  • Danilo Ardagna
  • Elisabetta Di Nitto

Abstract

Complex pervasive systems are typically composed of a large number of heterogeneous nodes, pervasively distributed across the environment. These systems pose several new challenges such as the need for nodes to autonomously and dynamically manage themselves in order to achieve some common goal, despite to the continuous evolution of the surrounding environment. An important research area for these systems regards the identification of proper load balancing mechanisms that, depending on the current utilization of resources at a node and on its knowledge of the neighbourhood, aim at optimizing at runtime the global system state with simple local actions without a centralized intelligence.

The SelfLet environment is a framework that provides an architectural model and a runtime infrastructure to support the development of distributed and autonomic systems. In this paper we extend the SelfLet approach by defining two optimization policies that, based on a prediction of the future load of a SelfLet node and of its neighbours, compute the most profitable autonomic load balancing action to be actuated. We show that adopting this approach, a system-wide load balancing behaviour emerges from the local actions.

Keywords

Autonomic systems Distributed workload management 

Abbreviations

\(\mathcal{N}\)

Set of logical nodes of the network

n

SelfLet index

\(\mathcal{N}_{n}\)

Set of neighbours for SelfLetn

\(\mathcal{S}_{n}\)

Services offered at SelfLetn

\(\mathcal{O}_{n}^{s}\)

Set of neighbours of n offering service s

\(a_{n}^{s}\)

Revenue received for the execution of service s at SelfLetn

\(c_{n}^{s,b}\)

Incurred cost for the execution of service s implemented by behavior b at SelfLetn

\(\widetilde{\lambda}_{n_{i},n_{j}}^{s}\)

Request rate from SelfLetni to SelfLetnj for service s

\(\Lambda_{n_{i}}^{s}\)

Cumulative request rate for service s at SelfLetni

\(\lambda_{i,n}^{b}\)

Request rate for state i of behaviour b in SelfLetn

\(\mathcal{I}^{b}\)

Set of states composing the behaviour b

i

Index for behaviour states

pij

Probability to go from state i to state j

\(\mbox{\boldmath$P$}^{b}\)

Routing matrix for behaviour b

\(\overline{R}_{n}^{s}\)

Response time threshold for service s at SelfLetn

\(U_{i,n}^{b}\)

Utilization generated by behaviour b in state i at SelfLetn

\(U_{n}^{b}\)

Total utilization generated by behaviour b at SelfLetn

Un

Total utilization at SelfLetn

\(\hat{U}_{n}\)

Total predicted utilization at SelfLetn

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolò M. Calcavecchia
    • 1
  • Danilo Ardagna
    • 1
  • Elisabetta Di Nitto
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Elettronica e InformazionePolitecnico di MilanoMilanoItaly

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