Offshore Wind: Staying Ahead of the Curve
- 98 Downloads
An important part of the Energy Union strategy is guaranteeing affordable, secure, competitive and sustainable energy for all Europeans. Europe is already a global leader in fighting climate change and promoting renewable energy with a renewable energy target set for at least 32% of final energy consumption in the EU for 2030. This chapter examines how the EU managed to transform the offshore wind industry from a few demonstration projects two decades ago to a mainstream generation technology today, supporting the Energy Union strategy. The analysis discusses offshore wind technology developments and trends from past to recent and future projects. It also provides best practices incorporated from countries leading offshore wind expansion in Europe. Finally, it highlights Europe’s offshore wind potential and discusses future challenges allowing Europe to stay ahead of the curve in research and implementation of future offshore wind developments.
KeywordsOffshore wind Wind turbines Technology trends EU energy policy Leading EU countries Future developments Floating wind
- EEG, 2017. “Renewable Energy Sources Act”. https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/EN/Downloads/renewable-energy-sources-act-2017.pdf%3F__blob%3DpublicationFile%26v%3D3.
- EQUINOR, 2020. “How Hywind Works”. https://www.equinor.com/en/what-we-do/hywind-where-the-wind-takes-us/hywind-up-close-and-personal.html.
- FOWIND, 2014. “Offshore Wind Policy and Market Assessment, A Global Outlook”, December 2014. http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/FOWIND_offshore_wind_policy_and_market_assessment_15-02-02_LowRes.pdf.
- GWEC, 2019a. “Global Wind Report”, April 2019. https://gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/GWEC-Global-Wind-Report-2018.pdf.
- GWEC, 2019b. “Global Offshore Wind Report: Sector Has Potential to Grow to 200GW of Capacity by 2030”, 26 June 2019.Google Scholar
- IEA, 2017. “Comparative Analysis of International Offshore Wind Energy Development, International Energy Agency”, March 2017. http://iea-retd.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/IEA-RETD-REWind-Offshore-report.pdf.
- IEA, 2019. “Offshore Wind to Become a $1 Trillion Industry”, 25 October 2019. https://www.iea.org/news/offshore-wind-to-become-a-1-trillion-industry.
- IRENA, 2012. “30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy: Lessons from 12 Markets”, 136. https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_GWEC_WindReport_Full.pdf.
- IRENA, 2016. “Innovation Outlook: Offshore Wind”. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_Innovation_Outlook_Offshore_Wind_2016.pdf.
- IRENA, 2018. “Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017”. http://www.irena.org/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/Jan/IRENA_2017_Power_Costs_2018.pdf.
- ORE Catapult. “Cost Reduction Monitoring Framework 2016”. http://crmfreport.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/crmf-report-2016.pdf.
- ORSTED, 2016. “Celebrating the Growth of Wind Turbines → Lowering the Cost of Offshore Wind. First 8 MW Turbine Installed Offshore” (@ORSTED, September 8, 2016). https://twitter.com/orsted/status/773864984027787264.
- ORSTED, 2017. “World’s First Offshore Wind Farm Now Dismantled.” https://orsted.com/en/Media/Newsroom/News/2017/09/Worlds-first-offshore-wind-farm-now-dismantled.
- PWC, 2017. “Unlocking Europe’s Offshore Wind Potential”, March 2017. https://blogs.pwc.de/oeffentlicher-sektor-zukunft-gestalten/files/2017/03/Offshore_Wind.pdf.
- Recharge, 2020. “Berlin Mulls ‘German Electrolysers’ Across EU to Meet Vast Green Hydrogen Needs From Offshore Wind”, accessed June 7, 2020, https://www.rechargenews.com/wind/berlin-mulls-german-electrolysers-across-eu-to-meet-vast-green-hydrogen-needs-from-offshore-wind/2-1-818553.
- RVO, 2015. “Offshore Wind Energy in the Netherlands”. https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/2015/03/Offshore%20wind%20energy%20in%20the%20Netherlands.pdf.
- Wind Power Monthly. “Offshore Wind Costs Fall 32% Since 2011”, 24 January 2017. http://www.windpoweroffshore.com/article/1421825/offshore-wind-costs-fall-32-2011.
- WindEurope, 2018. “Offshore Wind in Europe Key Trends and Statistics 2017”, 28. https://windeurope.org/wp-content/uploads/files/about-wind/statistics/WindEurope-Annual-Offshore-Statistics-2017.pdf.
- WindEurope, 2019. “Our Energy, Our Future How Offshore Wind Will Help Europe Go Carbon-Neutral”. https://windeurope.org/wp-content/uploads/files/about-wind/reports/WindEurope-Our-Energy-Our-Future.pdf.
- WindEurope, 2020a. “Offshore Wind in Europe Key Trends and Statistics 2019”, February 2020. https://windeurope.org/about-wind/statistics/offshore/european-offshore-wind-industry-key-trends-statistics-2019/.
- WindEurope, 2020b. “History of Europe’s Wind Industry”, accessed February 27, 2020, https://windeurope.org/about-wind/history/timeline/danish-government-sets-target-800-1350mw/.
- WindEurope, 2020c. “Wind Energy in Europe in 2019 Trends and Statistics”, February 2020. https://windeurope.org/wp-content/uploads/files/about-wind/statistics/WindEurope-Annual-Statistics-2019.pdf.