Short Paper: Coercion-Resistant Voting in Linear Time via Fully Homomorphic Encryption

Towards a Quantum-Safe Scheme
  • Peter B. RønneEmail author
  • Arash Atashpendar
  • Kristian Gjøsteen
  • Peter Y. A. Ryan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11599)


We present an approach for performing the tallying work in the coercion-resistant JCJ voting protocol, introduced by Juels, Catalano, and Jakobsson, in linear time using fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). The suggested enhancement also paves the path towards making JCJ quantum-resistant, while leaving the underlying structure of JCJ intact. The pairwise comparison-based approach of JCJ using plaintext equivalence tests leads to a quadratic blow-up in the number of votes, which makes the tallying process rather impractical in realistic settings with a large number of voters. We show how the removal of invalid votes can be done in linear time via a solution based on recent advances in various FHE primitives such as hashing, zero-knowledge proofs of correct decryption, verifiable shuffles and threshold FHE. We conclude by discussing some of the advantages and challenges resulting from our proposal, followed by an outline of future work and possible lines of attack.



The authors acknowledge support from the Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR) and the Research Council of Norway for the joint project SURCVS. The project was also supported by the FNR INTER-VoteVerif, the FNR CORE project Q-CoDe, and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 779391 (FutureTPM).


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Copyright information

© International Financial Cryptography Association 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter B. Rønne
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arash Atashpendar
    • 1
  • Kristian Gjøsteen
    • 2
  • Peter Y. A. Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.SnT, University of LuxembourgLuxembourg CityLuxembourg
  2. 2.Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNUTrondheimNorway

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