Advertisement

The Cost of Entry: Internships in Galleries, Libraries, Archives, and Museums Education

  • Marika CiforEmail author
  • Brian M. Watson
Conference paper
  • 227 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 12051)

Abstract

Internships are widespread in GLAM and have become the cost of entry to the field for many students and early career professionals. This paper reports on preliminary findings from a content analysis of internship related information on the websites’ of 178 graduate-level GLAM education programs in the U.S. and Canada. We contextualize the study in relation to the available literature on internships, and recent professional discussions. We discuss the implications our findings that: (A) there is a high prevalence of internships in the field; (B) there are significant differences in internship practices by GLAM discipline and by specialization, focus, certificate, or other master’s degree enhancement; (C) the wide variances in internship practices by geographic region, setting, and institution type; and (D) the diversity of internship requirements and structures within these professional education programs. We address the implications of internships for diversity and inclusion throughout our analysis.

Keywords

Internship Education Diversity 

References

  1. 1.
    Society of American Archivists.: Only Paid Internships to Be Posted to the SAA Career Center (2019). https://www2.archivists.org/news/2019/only-paid-internships-to-be-posted-to-the-saa-career-center
  2. 2.
    Greenberger, A.: Association of Art Museum Directors Calls for End of Unpaid Internships (2019). http://www.artnews.com/2019/06/20/aamd-resolution-paid-internships/
  3. 3.
    Hora, M., Wolfgram, M., Thompson, S.: What Do We Know About the Impact of Internships on Student Outcomes? Center for Research on College to Workforce Transitions, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Madison (2017). http://ccwt.wceruw.org/documents/CCWT-report-Designing-Internship-Programs.pdf
  4. 4.
    Dooley, J.: Feeding Our Young 2013 Society of American Archivists Presidential Address (2013). https://www2.archivists.org/history/leaders/jackie-m-dooley/2013-saa-presidential-address-by-jackie-dooley
  5. 5.
    Taylor, C.: Getting our house in order: moving from diversity to inclusion. Am. Arch. 80, 19–29 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.17723/0360-9081.80.1.19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Poole, A.H.: Pinkett’s charges: recruiting, retaining, and mentoring archivists of color in the twenty-first century. Am. Arch. 80, 103–134 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.17723/0360-9081.80.1.103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greene, M.A.: One archivist’s struggles with diversity, community, collaboration, and their implications for our profession. In: Caldera, M., Neal, K.M. (eds.) Through the Archival Looking Glass: A Reader on Diversity and Inclusion, pp. 23–59. Society of American Archivists, Chicago (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blaser, B., Ladner, R.E., Burgstahler, S.: Including disability in diversity. In: 2018 Research on Equity and Sustained Participation in Engineering, Computing, and Technology (RESPECT), pp. 1–4. IEEE, Baltimore (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1109/RESPECT.2018.8491717
  9. 9.
    Gilliland, A.J.: Pluralizing archival education. In: Caldera, M., Neal, N., Kathryn, M. (eds.) Through the Archival Looking Glass: A Reader on Diversity and Inclusion, pp. 235–271. Society of American Archivists, Chicago (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Neely, T.Y.: Diversity initiatives and programs: the national approach. J. Libr. Adm. 27, 123–144 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1300/J111v27n01_09CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Black, K.: Recruiting under-represented groups to librarianship. In: Multicultural Learning and Teaching, vol. 13 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1515/mlt-2017-0004
  12. 12.
    Jeffries, C.: Diversity, Inclusion, Access, & Equity: An Analysis of Otherness in Cultural Organizations. (1960). https://commons.emich.edu/honors/593
  13. 13.
    Lewis, J.: Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: Impacting Leadership Roles in Art Museums. Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (2018). https://idea.library.drexel.edu/islandora/object/idea%3A8225
  14. 14.
    Hunt, W., Scott, P.: Paid and unpaid graduate internships: prevalence, quality and motivations at six months after graduation. Stud. High. Educ. 45(2), 1–13 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1541450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holmes, K.: Experiential Learning or exploitation? Volunteering for work experience in the UK Museums sector. Mus. Manag. Curatorsh. 21, 240–253 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.musmancur.2006.06.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smith, S., Smith, C., Caddell, M.: Can pay, should pay? Exploring employer and student perceptions of paid and unpaid placements. Active Learn. High. Educ. 16, 149–164 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787415574049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Held, D.K.: The Internship Gap: The Relationship Between Internship Salary and the Probability of Receiving a Job Offer (2016). https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/handle/10822/1040792
  18. 18.
    National Association of Colleges and Employers: The class of 2014 student survey report (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wildenhaus, K.: Wages for intern work: denormalizing unpaid positions in archives and libraries. J. Crit. Libr. Inf. Stud. 2, 1–26 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.24242/jclis.v2i1.88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Multnomah County: Effective Library Internships: A Toolkit for Success. Multnomah County Library, Multnomah County, Oregon (2012). http://interns.multcolib.org/EffectiveLibraryInternshipsFULL.pdf
  21. 21.
    Surles, E., Cuervo, A.P.: The Jazz archives fellowship: professional development and diversity at the Institute of Jazz Studies. J. Arch. Organ. 12, 230–241 (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cuyler, A.C.: Diversity internships in arts management, do they work? Am. J. Arts Manag. 13, 1–13 (2015). http://fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu%3A330447
  23. 23.
    Bastian, J.A., Webber, D.: Archival Internships: A Guide for Faculty, Supervisors, and Students. Society of American Archivists, Chicago (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Farkas, M.: Barriers to diversity: problems of LIS internships and practica. Am. Libr. 50, 48 (2019)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Galvan, A.: Soliciting Performance, Hiding Bias: Whiteness and Librarianship (2015). http://www.inthelibrarywiththeleadpipe.org/2015/soliciting-performance-hiding-bias-whiteness-and-librarianship/
  26. 26.
    Farrell, B., Medvedeva, M.: Cultural Policy Center: Demographic Transformation and the Future of Museums. AAM Press, Washington, DC (2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Westermann, M., Sweeney, L., Schonfeld, R.: Art Museum Staff Demographic Survey 2018. Ithaka S+R (2019).  https://doi.org/10.18665/sr.310935
  28. 28.
    United States Office of Personnel Management: 2012 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey Results: National Archives and Records Administration Agency. United States Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC (2012)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pena, K., Hinsen, K., Wilbur, M.: Why diversity programs fail and how to fix them. SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 127, 56–69 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.5594/JMI.2018.2860499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goldman, R.: Sea change: a community approach to archives internships. In: Conference presentations, p. 71. La Salle University, Philadelphia (2016)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tai, J., Jimenez, K., Larmon, O.H.: Building Frameworks for Ethical Paid Internships in Archives. Society of American Archivists, Students and New Archives Professionals Section Meeting (2019)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fisher, M.M.: Culture Workers, Just Say No to All Unpaid Internships. ARTNews (2019). https://www.artnews.com/art-news/news/unpaid-interhips-art-museums-transparency-oped-12974/
  33. 33.
    Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education: Carnegie Classifications (2018). http://carnegieclassifications.iu.edu/downloads.php
  34. 34.
    Mason-Draffen, C.: New rules could lead to more unpaid internships. Newsday. https://www.newsday.com/business/unpaid-internships-federal-regulations-1.17225681
  35. 35.
    Perlin, R.: Intern Nation: How to Earn Nothing and Learn Little in the Brave New Economy, pp. 31–35. Verso Books, Brooklyn (2011)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kopp, M.G.: Internships in special collections: experiential pedagogy, intentional design, and high-impact practice. RBM J. Rare Books Manuscr. Cult. Herit. 20, 12 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carnegie Unit Foundation: What is the Carnegie Unit? (2014). https://www.carnegiefoundation.org/faqs/carnegie-unit/
  38. 38.
    Schwartz, P.S.: Making it Count: Professional Standards and Best Practices in Building Museum Internship Programs. Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey (2012). https://sustainingplaces.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/museum-internship-programs.pdf
  39. 39.
    American Library Association: Directory of ALA-Accredited and Candidate Programs in Library and Information Studies (2019). http://www.ala.org/educationcareers/accreditedprograms/directory
  40. 40.
    Society of American Archivists. Directory of Archival Education (2019). https://www2.archivists.org/dae
  41. 41.
    American Alliance of Museums: Accreditation & Excellence Programs (2019). https://www.aam-us.org/programs/accreditation-excellence-programs/accreditation/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Indiana University BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations