A New JPEG Image Watermarking Method Exploiting Spatial JND Model
- 70 Downloads
For JPEG images, the current digital watermarking methods mainly embed the watermark by modifying the DCT coefficients, in which the spatial visual performance isn’t well taken into account. As a result, significant visual distortion can be observed in smooth and boundary regions of the marked image. Then, to improve the visual quality of the marked image, a new JPEG image watermarking method exploiting the spatial just-noticeable-difference (JND) model is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, the watermark is embedded into the DCT domain, but the embedding strength is directly determined by a spatial JND model. Moreover, for each DCT block, the variances calculated from the difference blocks along four different directions are controlled to further enhance the imperceptibility. Finally, an optimization problem is summarized and developed to obtain the optimal embedding strength that meets the above requirements. Experimental results show that, with the same PSNR and robustness, the proposed method has better imperceptibility than the prior art.
KeywordsDCT domain digital watermarking Spatial JND model Optimization problem
- 1.Ahumada, A.J., Peterso, H.A.: Luminance-model-based DCT quantization for color image compression. In: Human Vision, Visual Processing, Digital Display III. vol. 1666, pp. 365–374 (1992)Google Scholar
- 4.Cheng, D., Li, X., Qi, W., Yang, B.: A statistics-based watermarking scheme robust to print-and-scan. In: 2008 International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security, pp. 894–898 (2008)Google Scholar
- 7.Cox, I., Miller, M., Bloom, J., Fridrich, J., Kalker, T.: Digital Watermarking and Steganography, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco (2007)Google Scholar