Microgrids: Operation and Control Methods

  • Flávia de AndradeEmail author
  • Miguel Castilla
  • Benedito Donizeti Bonatto
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Energy book series (BRIEFSENERGY)


A microgrid is a distributed system configuration with generation, distribution, control, storage and consumption connected locally, which can operate isolated or connected to other microgrids or the main grid. It contrasts with traditional centralized grids through bidirectional connection with users and autonomous local control layers. Advances in control techniques, automation, energy storage technologies, communication and superior computing processing capabilities lead to increased efficiency and reliability of microgrids compared to traditional grids. Electrical grid control methods are divided into three hierarchical levels, diverging on the scale and purpose of its implementation. The most promising method so far is based on a technique known as “droop control”, which was developed based on conventional power systems to support the parallel connection of multiple voltage sources sharing the network loads. This chapter introduces an overview of the electrical energy industry evolution, after decades of centralization, reoriented towards increased distributed generation and microgrids. Also, a classification of microgrid operation modes is presented, including grid-connected, islanded and transient operation mode. Finally, the chapter presents a comprehensive description of microgrid control strategies based on the classical hierarchical control method.


Microgrid Droop control Power inverter Distributed generation Control methods Operating modes 


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© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering and Physical SciencesHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK
  2. 2.Department of Electronic EngineeringUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaVilanova I la GeltrúSpain
  3. 3.Institute of Electrical Systems and EnergyFederal University of ItajubáItajubáBrazil

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